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Cuitlahuac led a major attack at Otumba but was defeated. Cortes agreed so that his men could recuperate at Tlaxcala. Bobadilla sent all three Colon brothers back to Spain in chains. When Velasco died in , the city council of Mexico sent a message they did not want another viceroy. They are regulated but only to the extent that virtual currency dealers are required to comply with Canada's anti-money laundering laws.
Less populous provinces and territories have joined together to create one entity to provide those services for the member provinces and territories. Set out below are the government-controlled entities that provide gambling services in Canada:.
In Alberta, the regulator AGLC as referenced above fulfils the same functions as the lottery corporations in the other provinces. It therefore conducts and manages gaming in Alberta as well as regulating the activity.
The Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation "OLG" conducts and manages all non-charitable gaming in the province as well as certain charitable gaming operations. Manages, conducts and operates lottery and gaming-related activities on behalf of its members namely, the governments of the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and the three Canadian territories Nunavut, Northwest Territories and Yukon.
In Canada there is no statutory definition of "gambling". Rather, the debate revolves around what activities are contrary to the Code. There are a number of activities that are prohibited by the Code but may not be thought of as "gambling" in the colloquial sense of the word. For example, a competition or draw for a prize may fall into any one of a number of baskets depending on its structure. If, for example, no consideration is payable in order to enter the competition, Canadian case law has made it clear that any person hosting or offering such a competition is not illegally operating a common gaming or betting house.
Furthermore, the Code, and the little case law there is on the subject, draw fine distinctions between games of pure skill, games of pure chance, and games of mixed chance and skill. As a result of the archaic language in the Code, a number of idiosyncratic "rules" have evolved, the best example being the "mathematical skill-testing question" which is added to contest rules in order to transform a competition from an illegal contest of pure chance to a legal contest of mixed chance and skill.
In sum, any competition for a prize must be examined through the lens of section of the Code in order to determine whether it might constitute an illegal lottery. Games of pure skill do not fall within the definition of an illegal lottery in section 1 of the Code and so can be legally provided without the consent of a regulator or any other government body. It is important to note that Canada's highest court, the Supreme Court of Canada, has made it quite clear that if there is any element of chance built into the structure of a game, it will be considered a game of mixed chance and skill and not a game of pure skill.
The concept of a "dominant factor" is not recognised by the courts in this country. Poker, for example, is considered to be a game of mixed chance and skill as there is an element of chance in the game flowing from the dealing of cards.
Games of chance, and games of mixed chance and skill are considered illegal lotteries unless no consideration is paid to enter, play or win a prize. Based on generally accepted interpretations of section , it is possible nonetheless to structure a game of either nature so as to render it legal.
The conduct of daily fantasy sports i. There is presently an active debate amongst gaming regulators and Canadian lawyers about the legality of DFS, some taking the position that it is merely a form of sports betting and therefore illegal, while others take the position that it is a game of pure skill and therefore a legal competition.
The same is true for egaming now referred to as "eSports" , which has only recently come to the attention of Canadian regulators. It is unlikely that we will see any regulations specifically addressing eSports in the foreseeable future; regulators and law enforcement are far more likely to analyse DFS and eSports using the existing paradigm provided in the Code i.
Social games as traditionally defined, e. Angry Birds and Candy Crush Saga are not regulated per se by any government body although, like any other consumer product, they are subject to review and regulation by provincial consumer protection ministries and the federal Competition Bureau.
Set out below are the national and provincial statutes that apply to activities that are generally agreed to constitute gambling. At the federal level, the Code is the primary legislation that impacts gambling in Canada, as it contains both the primary prohibitions and exceptions respecting gambling and the federal penal law concerning proceeds of crime including money laundering Part XII.
The PCTFA was enacted and has been subsequently amended to implement measures to detect and deter money laundering and the financing of terrorist activities, to facilitate the investigation or prosecution of money laundering and terrorist financing offences including establishing record-keeping and client identification requirements for financial services providers and other persons that engage in businesses, professions or activities that are susceptible to being used for money laundering, and the financing of terrorist activities , and to respond to the threat posed by organised crime by providing law enforcement officials with the information they need to investigate and prosecute money laundering or terrorist financing offences.
Section 5 k specifically identifies casinos as a type of organisation that must comply with all requirements in Part 1 Record Keeping, Verifying Identity, Reporting Of Suspicious Transactions And Registration of the Act.
The Competition Act is the only federal statute that is applicable to contests and competitions. Any person who is found to have contravened this section is liable to a fine. While this provision is rarely enforced and the levying of fines is even rarer, that is likely due to the fact that most people are aware of these requirements and structure contests accordingly. In most provinces, the structure of legislation governing gambling consists of a statute that sets out the regulatory framework typically a "gaming control act" and another statute that establishes the provincial government's lottery corporation.
The regulations under each statute contain most of the operational and regulatory details. Set out below are the primary gambling statutes in each province. Quebec is the only province that has legislation addressing the operation of competitions and contests, including a competition of pure skill if it is "carried on for the object of promoting the commercial interests of the person for whom it is carried on". As noted above, gambling in Canada is a provincial Crown monopoly pursuant to section of the Code.
With a very few exceptions, no person other than a provincial government is legally permitted to supply gambling facilities or services in Canada. The primary exception, which is found in section 1 b , permits provincial governments to issue licences to charitable and religious organisations henceforth, "charities" to conduct and manage lottery schemes in that province, provided that the proceeds from the lottery scheme are used for charitable or religious objects or purposes.
One important restriction on any such licence is found in section 4 c which prohibits provinces from granting licences for any lottery scheme that would be "operated on or through a computer, video device or slot machine". Dice games are also prohibited to licensees under the same subsection. Notwithstanding the foregoing, all provinces do require registration of any person supplying goods and services for use in the operation of gambling facilities and the provision of gaming services by the province.
As the provincial governments, out of necessity, must contract out the vast majority of such services, in reality this is the "licensing" scheme in Canada. Theoretically, any company that wishes to supply gambling facilities may approach a provincial government with a proposal for a gambling facility which the government would, by law, be required to conduct and manage, with the proponent of the plan acting as the operator under contract with the government.
Practically speaking, however, provincial governments decide on the number, nature and location of gambling facilities that they wish to have in their province from time to time, and then tender out the construction and operation of those facilities to the private sector.
As an example of the tender process, the Province of Ontario recently decided to permit a number of new casinos to be built and operated in the province. A number of geographic sectors were identified and then the province, through the OLG, put in motion a full tender process, beginning with a Request for Information, followed by a Request for Pre-Qualification and finally by a Request for Proposals.
In order to submit a Request for Pre-Qualification, it was necessary for the applicant to have first obtained registration as an Operator and to have paid all of the expenses related to the risk assessment and security clearances conducted by the AGCO. While the process started in early , the primary geographic areas only saw casino operators selected in An applicant tendering for a contract to build and operate a provincial government monopoly project such as a casino should assume that it will take at least two to three years before they are advised whether their tender has been successful.
Are personal and premises licences needed? Do key suppliers need authorisation? The persons who are required to be registered as gaming suppliers differ from province to province, but only to a minor extent.
An overview of the system of registration in the Province of Ontario is therefore sufficient to provide a sense of what will be required in other provinces. Ontario has the following classes of registration for gaming suppliers:. Operator person who operates a gaming site that is, either a casino or a slot machine facility.
Gaming-Related Supplier person who manufactures, provides, installs, tests, maintains or repairs gaming equipment or who provides consulting or similar services directly related to the playing of a lottery scheme or the operation of a gaming site. Non-Gaming-Related Supplier person who provides goods or services that relate to the construction, furnishing, repair, maintenance or business of a gaming site or a related business but who is not directly related to the playing of a lottery scheme or the operation of a gaming site.
Trade Union a trade union that represents registered gaming assistants employed in or at a gaming site. Category 1 Gaming Assistant individual who is employed in the conduct, management or operation of a lottery scheme or in the operation of a gaming site and who exercises a significant level of decision-making authority or has significant supervisory or training responsibilities with respect to the lottery scheme or the site.
Category 2 Gaming Assistant individual who is employed in the conduct, management or operation of a lottery scheme or in the operation of a gaming site but who does not exercise a significant level of decision-making authority or have significant supervisory or training responsibilities with respect to the lottery scheme or the site.
As persons are registered within a particular class of gaming suppliers, they are by definition restricted with respect to the activities in which they can legally engage. They are then restricted by the terms of the contract entered into with the provincial lottery corporation or other agent of the Crown to whom they will be supplying goods or services. There are no firm residency requirements or restrictions on persons applying for registration. Each applicant will, however, be required to pass the risk assessment outlined in question 2.
Each province has its own process for applying for gaming supplier registrations but, again, they are relatively similar, and Ontario provides a good example of what is required in most provinces. In order to be registered as an operator or supplier, a company must complete three forms: The initial risk assessment involves the review of an applicant's completed application materials as well as information obtained based on a standard background check.
This information is evaluated based on five criteria which are considered key indicators of an individual's or business's appropriateness to be registered. The five criteria related to businesses e. A business may be exempt from the requirement to register as a non-gaming-related supplier if: Each province differs in this regard but as the organisational structures are similar, Ontario will be used as an example. The AGCO issues registrations with expiry dates.
Prior to expiry, the registrant must complete and submit the same form as used for the initial application for registration. Each registrant must also pay an annual fee e. Registrations may be revoked for any number of reasons but only after disciplinary action short of revocation. In Ontario, registrants who are not in compliance with the law usually receive a warning first, followed by a monetary penalty if still non-compliant. If the registrant continues to be non-compliant, the AGCO will issue a notice advising the registrant that they have 15 days in which to appeal the decision to a separate government appeal tribunal that is not associated with the AGCO.
If the registrant does not appeal or loses on appeal, the registration will be revoked. Please include in this answer the material promotion and advertising restrictions. The key limitation arises from the fact that all gambling products and services must be provided exclusively by or through a licence from a provincial government.
The lottery corporations in each province will decide which types of products they wish to carry from time to time and are able to change those policy decisions at will. As the provider of the products and services, they will exercise significant control over the performance of the products, the locations in which they are placed, and the marketing that is permitted. While no product or service is fixed and the situation is fluid from province to province, there are general broad trends that provide some guidance with respect to the provision of gambling products and services.
Ticket lotteries tend to be provided exclusively by provincial lottery corporations and licensed charities albeit using private product and service providers. Casinos are operated both by private operators e. Bingo and raffles are generally left to charities. Betting other than pari-mutuel betting is provided by provincial lottery corporations through their websites. Unlike in the United States, there are no rights specifically granted to aboriginal bands to provide gambling services in Canada.
Any band or other aboriginal group that provides legal gambling services does so as a service supplier to the applicable provincial government.
In some provinces such as Saskatchewan, the government has made a policy decision to contract out the provision of a significant portion of gambling services to aboriginal groups but this is a purely contractual relationship.
The bands in question have no independent right to provide gambling services, nor could Saskatchewan or any other province purport to grant them that right, given the underlying federal gaming prohibition in the Code.
As the majority of private corporations operating in the gambling industry in Canada are, of necessity, merely registered suppliers of gambling products and services to the provincial governments, there are no industry-specific taxes or levies. Such companies are required to comply with generally applicable federal and provincial income tax laws but there is no separate regime of taxes within the industry.
As the providers of gambling services in their respective jurisdictions, the provincial lottery corporations have all addressed social responsibility in their regulations and policies, if not in their statutes. Any private companies that provide services to the public on behalf of the lottery corporations are required to conform with those policies and regulations. Those policies generally include training programmes for employees regarding responsible gaming, advising and informing all players concerning responsible gaming and how to make informed choices about products and play in general, and the operation of voluntary exclusion programmes.
Once again, using Ontario as an example, the OLG has a Responsible Gambling Centre at all sites, with staff from the Responsible Gambling Council at eight locations; there is mandatory training for all front-line and management staff; and they run a self-exclusion programme that uses technology such as facial recognition. It is a given that minors are excluded from all forms of gambling activity including the purchase of lottery tickets.
Does your jurisdiction permit virtual currencies to be used for gambling and are they separately regulated? As noted above, the only entities that can legally supply gambling in Canada are provincial governments either directly through their respective lottery corporations or through service suppliers to those lottery corporations and charitable organisations licensed by provincial governments.
At present, section 5 k of the PCTFA states that the record-keeping, identity verification and reporting requirements apply to "casinos, as defined in the regulations, including those owned or controlled by Her Majesty". The relevant regulations then define "casino" as a person or entity that is licensed, registered, permitted or otherwise authorised to do business pursuant to the Code. The amendments clearly identify the "government of a province" as the organisation to which the statute applies in the case of both land-based and online casinos.
There was an error trying to load your rating for this title. Some parts of this page won't work property. Please reload or try later. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. On Disc at Amazon. Italy - 30 great films. Share this Rating Title: Odds and Evens 7. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. User Polls Rumble Match: Learn more More Like This.
Who Finds a Friend Finds a Treasure Go for It PG Action Adventure Comedy. I'm for the Hippopotamus Watch Out, We're Mad Terence Hill, Bud Spencer, C. All the Way Boys Turn the Other Cheek Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Johnny Firpo Bud Spencer Charlie Firpo Luciano Catenacci Paragoulis the Greek Marisa Laurito Sister Susanna Kim McKay Nynfus as Salvatore Borgese Jerry Lester Admiral O'Connor Carlo Reali Marine Officer Riccardo Pizzuti Gangster at Car Race Claudio Ruffini Edit Storyline The navy's detective gets his brother, the ex-gambler to help him liquidate an illegal gaming house on a yacht near Miami.
Gambling for high stakes! Edit Did You Know? Trivia The type of game played during the sports match was "Pelotte". Add the first question. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this.