History of Wisconsin

Laurence, through the continent of North America, to the frozen and Pacific Oceans ; in the years and Voyages, travels, and discoveries of Tilly Buttrick, jr. Ripon claims to be the birthplace of the Republican Party, as does Jackson, Michigan, where the first statewide convention was held. Marie, MI Phone Number: Mark Raymond , The Cherokee Indians: History of the United States by polity.

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26 Tribal Casinos Across 21 Counties

View North American Indian Wars 2 in a larger map. North American Indian Wars with Europeans in North America from first contact to end of 19th century, including murders, massacres, depredations, uprisings, renegade actions, extermination campaigns, genocide, raids, pursuits, and the like, along with select western US military forts.

Red River Battle, Texas. Maps of Land Assigned to the "Emigrant" Indians Cherokee Trail of Tears Northern Route. Choctaw Trail of Tears. Indian Powwows, Festivals and Conferences approx. View Indian Powwows, Festivals and Conferences in a larger map. Calendar of US Native American Powwows and other Indian festivals and conferences, starting with Powwows and catching up to today.

Two Ravens, Hidatsa, by Karl Bodmer Indian Casinos and Gaming approx. View Indian Casinos and Gaming in a larger map. Casinos and other gaming operations by Native American tribes blue; green is non-Indian. Indian Art of Native America approx. View Indian Art of Native America in a larger map. The links below open onto online books with full-text that can be read online or downloaded in pdf, epub, txt, and other formats, consisting of general and specific Indian histories of tribes, and Indian-white conflict, Indian biographies, cultural and thnographic studies, archaeological studies, Indian mission and education history, exploration and settlement and military campaigns, art works concerning Indian life, popular works, and more.

The Google Map is below:. Indian Online Bibliography 1 approx. View Indian Online Bibliography 1 in a larger map. Indian Online Bibliography 2 approx. View Indian Online Bibliography 2 in a larger map. Indian Online Bibliography 3 approx.

View Indian Online Bibliography 3 in a larger map. These links will be organized in due time. The above is a Google Map for the books and markers placing the books in appropriate locations and topics on Google Earth, and additional references of books and articles of items not available in full-text online but available for purchase will be added later.

State Recognized Indian Tribes. American Indian and Alaska Native Populations. List of Alaska Native Tribal Entities. Alaska Native Regional Corporations.

Drag to pan, brush two fingertips upward on touch pad to enlarge, downward to shrink. Aboriginal Population Assembly of First Nations: Indian Biography Indian Biography 1 approx. View Indian Biography 1 in a larger map Indian Biography 2 approx.

View Indian Biography 2 in a larger map. Marr, Assimilation Through Education: Ignatius Mission Lake County, Mont. Tulalip Boarding and Day Schools, Washington: University of Nebraska Press, c Ludlow, H. Indian education in the American colonies, University of New Mexico Press. American Indian Policy Review Commission. Report on Indian education: Hampton Institute, and Helen Wilhelmina Ludlow. University of Nebraska Press. Fernwood ; Prince Albert: Prince Albert Grand Council, c Flathead number - Google Books inauthor: Mission Indians New Georgia Encyclopedia: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries Reuben Gold Thwaites, v.

Discovery and Exploration Wikipedia: European colonization of the Americas Wikipedia: American Indian Paths Wikipedia: Native American trails in the United States Wikipedia: Historic trails and roads in the United States Wikipedia: Northwest Fur Company Wikipedia: American Fur Company Wikipedia: Pacific Fur Company Wikipedia: Fort Laramie Fort Tours: French and Indian War Forts Wikipedia: American Revolutionary War Forts Wikipedia: Red River Battle, Texas Wikipedia: American Indian Wars Wikipedia: Wars of the indigenous peoples of North America Indian Wars: Cherokee Removal Encyclopedia of Alabama: Cherokee Indian Removal Encyclopedia of Alabama: Creek Indian Removal Encylcopedia of Alabama: The Google Map is below: Indian tribes of the lower Mississippi Valley and adjacent coast of the Gulf of Mexico: McCoy, Isaac, Recent Indian wars, under the lead of Sitting Bull, and other chiefs; with a full account of the Messiah craze, and ghost dances: Certain aboriginal sites on lower Ohio River.

Additional investigation on Mississippi River: Clarence Bloomfield , Souvenir album of noted Indian photographs: Moorhouse, Lee Statistics of Indian tribes, Indian agencies, and Indian schools of every character [microform]: Laurence, through the continent of North America, to the frozen and Pacific Oceans ; in the years and Kane, Paul, Western missions and missionaries: Smet, Pierre-Jean de, The wilderness trail; or, The ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny path: Buchanan, James, An account of the life of Mr.

Brainerd, David, Tales of the Mississaguas [microform]: Alexander Francis , Sketches of the past and present condition of the Indians of Canada [microform]: Alice Charlotte Alice , Memoirs of odd adventures, strange deliverances, etc. Fernow, Berthold, History of Lake Champlain from its first exploration by the French in to the close of the year [microform]: Peter Sailly , b.

Boas, Franz, History of Indian missions on the Pacific coast [microform]: Oregon, Washington and Idaho: Eells, Myron, Oceanic origin of the Kwakiutl-Nootka and Salish stocks of British Columbia and fundamental unity of same [microform]: Irving, Washington, Notice regarding the map of Mackenzie's River [microform]: Wenzel [sic] of the North-West Fur Company: Willard Ferdinand , d.

Hearne, Samuel, The report of the Meeting for Sufferings respecting the aborigines, presented to the Yearly Meeting, [microform]: Egerton Ryerson , The captivity and deliverance of Mr. John Williams, pastor of the church in Deerfield, and Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, of Lancaster [microform]: Williams, John, The Indian captive, or, A narrative of the captivity and sufferings of Zadock Steele [microform]: Steele, Zadock The history of Minnesota [microform]: Neill, Edward Duffield, The early history of Michigan [microform]: Electa Maria , What befell Stephen Williams in his captivity [microform]: Williams, Stephen, Vocabularies by Zeisberger [microform]: Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The craniometry of southern New England Indians: Kip, William Ingraham, Kip, William Ingraham, bp. Bill, Willard E History of the border wars of two centuries: Charles Richard , b. Culin, Stewart, History of Indian depredations in Utah.. Gottfredson, Peter Indian paths in the great metropolis: Frost, John, "In re California Indians to date": Langdon Kihn, together with important examples of ancient and modern pottery, blankets, jewelry, bead and leather work made by the Pueblo and Blackfeet tribes: Langdon Memoirs, historical and edifying of a missionary apostolic of the Order of Saint Dominic among various Indian tribes and among the Catholics and Protestants in the United States of America: Mazzuchelli, Samuel, Narrative of the Canadian Red river exploring expedition of Frank Maryl , Poor Lo!

Wyeth, Walter N The removal of the Indians: Evarts, Jeremiah, Report of the Commission to locate the site of the frontier forts of Pennsylvania: Indian Forts Commission Report of the Commission to locate the site of the frontier forts of Pennsylvania: Indian Forts Commission A report from Natchitoches in Sibley, John, A report from Natchitoches in Alfred Louis , Woodland complexes in northeastern Iowa: Wilfred David , Notes on the ethnology of British Columbia [microform]: Boas, Franz, Physical characteristics of the Indians of the north Pacific coast [microform]: Boas, Franz, California culture provinces: Alfred Louis , Alaska, and missions on the north Pacific coast [microform]: Blair, Emma Helen, d.

Jackson, William Henry, Bry, Theodor de, Graphic sketches from old and authentic works, illustrating the costume, habits, and character, of the aborigines of America: Portraits to the life and manners of the inhabitants, of that province in America, called Virginia The Oregon Territory, and the British North American fur trade.

With an account of the habits and customs of the principal native tribes on the northern continent: Charles Cornelius The Indian policy during Grant's administrations: Rushmore, Elsie Mitchell, Routes to Indian agencies and schools with their post office and telegraphic addresses and nearest railroad stations: Hawley to Sir William Johnson, written at Defire of the Delaware Indians and a preface giving a short account of the Six Nations, some anecdotes of the life of Sir William, and notes illustrating the whole ; also an appendix containing an account of conferences between several Quakers in Philadelphia, and some of the heads of the Six nations, in April Crosby, Thomas, A new discovery of a vast country in America: Hennepin, Louis, 17th cent A bibliographical catalogue of books, translations of the Scriptures, and other publications in the Indian tongues of the United States: Society of Friends Brief sketches of C.

Headland, Emily The Canadian Indian: John Bert Catalogue of the private library of Samuel G. Drake, of Boston, chiefly relating to the antiquities, history, and biography of America, and in an especial manner to the Indians, collected and used by him in preparing his works upon the aborigines of America: Dufour, Joseph, Travels through the interior parts of North-America, in the years , , and [microform]: Carver, Jonathan, A voyage to Hudson's Bay, during the summer of [microform]: Bartlett, Samuel Colcord, A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians, with some comparisons;: Bureau of American Ethnology A collection of gesture-signs and signals of the North American Indians, with some comparisons;: Bureau of American Ethnology Massasoit of the Wampanoags; with a brief commentary on Indian character; and sketches of other great chiefs, tribes and nations; also a chapter on Samoset, Squanto and Hobamock, three early native friends of the Plymouth colonists: Weeks, Alvin Gardner, The Indian dispossessed: Seth King , b.

Mazzuchelli, Samuel, The clear sunshine of the gospel breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England: Shepard, Thomas, The Iroquois trail, or Foot-prints of the Six nations, in customs, traditions, and history: Lee, Samuel, Trailmakers of the Northwest: Haworth, Paul Leland, On Canada's frontier: Ralph, Julian, The great fur land; or, Sketches of life in the Hudson's bay territory: Timon, John, The discovery and conquests of the Northwest: Blanchard, Rufus, Lutheran mission work among the American Indians: Nelson, William, The Quinnipiack Indians and their reservation: Townshend, Charles Hervey, A declaration and remonstrance of the distressed and bleeding frontier inhabitants of the province of Pennsylvania: Harris, William Richard, Era of the formation of the historic league of the Iroquois;: Ralph Vary , The ethno-geography of the Pomo and neighboring Indians: Henderson, Junius, The federal Indian policy in Utah, Byrne, Laura Laurenson Friends and the Indians, Kelsey, Rayner Wickersham, Frost's pictorial history of Indian wars and captivities, from the earliest record of American history to the present time: Frost, John, Glooscap the great chief, and other stories; legends of the Micmacs: Loskiel, George Henry, Shea, John Gilmary, History of the early missions in western Canada: Harris, William Richard, Hudson bay: Everyday life in the wilds of North America, during six years' residence in the territories of the hon.

Robert Michael , Indian narratives: To which is added a correct account of the capture and sufferings of Mrs. Johnson, Zadock Steele, and others; and also a thrilling account of the burning of Royalton.. Tracy and brothers, Claremont, N. Orcutt, Samuel, Indian sketches, taken during and expedition to the Pawnee and other tribes of American Indians: Nathaniel Jarvis , The Iroquois in Ohio: Charles Candee , John Long's voyages and travels in the years John , Indian trader A journal of two visits made to some nations of Indians on the west side of the river Ohio, in the years and Undertaken by order of the Hudson's Bay company.

Albert Samuel , Lancaster County Indians; annals of the Susquehannocks and other Indian tribes of the Susquehanna territory from about the year to , the date of their extinction: Eshleman, Henry Frank, [from old catalog] The land of the Miamis: Konsag, Ferdinand, Lights and shadows of a long episcopate; being reminiscences and recollections of the Right Reverend Henry Benjamin Whipple Whipple, Henry Benjamin, Like beads on a string: Weisman, Brent Richards List of publications of the Bureau of American ethnoloy with index to authors and titles..

Bureau of American ethnology. Legislative Assembly Missionary explorers among the American Indians: Humphreys, Mary Gay, d. Crosby, Thomas, The Moquis of Arizona: Milfort, Louis, ca. McLean, John, Notes on the Iroquois, or, Contributions to the statistics, aboriginal history, antiquities and general ethnology of western New York: Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, On Canada's frontier: Ralph, Julian, On the trail of Geronimo: Ellis, Edward Sylvester, Origin and traditional history of the Wyandotts, and sketches of other Indian tribes of North America: Deposited with the Smithsonian institution: Skinner, Alanson, Record of engagements with hostile Indians within the Military division of the Missouri, from to , Lieuntenant General P.

Jacob Richards , Report of the delegates representing the Yearly Meetings: Zeisberger, David, Account of an expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years and ' Calhoun, sec'y of war: From the notes of Major Long, Mr. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party: Wisconsin was dubbed the "Badger State" because of the lead miners who first settled there in the s and s. Without shelter in the winter, they had to "live like badgers" in tunnels burrowed into hillsides.

Although the lead mining area drew the first major wave of settlers, its population would soon be eclipsed by growth in Milwaukee. Milwaukee, along with Sheboygan , Manitowoc , and Kewaunee , can be traced back to a series of trading posts established by the French trader Jacques Vieau in Vieau's post at the mouth of the Milwaukee River was purchased in by Solomon Juneau , who had visited the area as early as Juneau moved to what is now Milwaukee and took over the trading post's operation in When the fur trade began to decline, Juneau focused on developing the land around his trading post.

In the s he formed a partnership with Green Bay lawyer Morgan Martin, and the two men bought acres 0. There they founded the settlement of Juneautown. Meanwhile, an Ohio businessman named Byron Kilbourn began to invest in the land west of the Milwaukee River, forming the settlement of Kilbourntown.

South of these two settlements, George H. Walker founded the town of Walker's Point in Each of these three settlements engaged in a fierce competition to attract the most residents and become the largest of the three towns.

In , the Wisconsin State Legislature ordered the construction of a bridge over the Milwaukee River to replace the inadequate ferry system. In , Byron Kilbourn, who had been trying to isolate Juneautown to make it more dependent on Kilbourntown, destroyed a portion of the bridge, which started the Milwaukee Bridge War. For several weeks, skirmishes broke out between the residents of both towns. No one was killed but several people were injured, some seriously.

On January 31, the settlements of Juneautown, Kilbourntown, and Walker's Point merged into the incorporated city of Milwaukee. Solomon Juneau was elected mayor. The new city had a population of about 10, people, making it the largest city in the territory.

Milwaukee remains the largest city in Wisconsin to this day. By fall of that year, the best prairie groves of the counties surrounding Milwaukee were occupied by New England farmers. At the time the Congress called it the "Wiskonsin Territory". The first territorial governor of Wisconsin was Henry Dodge. He and other territorial lawmakers were initially busied by organizing the territory's government and selecting a capital city. The selection of a location to build a capitol caused a heated debate among the territorial politicians.

At first, Governor Dodge selected Belmont, located in the heavily populated lead mining district, to be capital. Shortly after the new legislature convened there, however, it became obvious that Wisconsin's first capitol was inadequate.

Numerous other suggestions for the location of the capital were given representing nearly every city that existed in the territory at the time, and Governor Dodge left the decision up to the other lawmakers. The legislature accepted a proposal by James Duane Doty to build a new city named Madison on an isthmus between lakes Mendota and Monona and put the territory's permanent capital there.

This city was transferred to Iowa Territory in , along with all the lands of Wisconsin Territory west of the Mississippi River. Wyman calls Wisconsin a "palimpsest" of layer upon layer of peoples and forces, each imprinting permanent influences. He identified these layers as multiple "frontiers" over three centuries: Native American frontier, French frontier, English frontier, fur-trade frontier, mining frontier, and the logging frontier. Finally the coming of the railroad brought the end of the frontier.

The historian of the frontier, Frederick Jackson Turner grew up in Wisconsin during its last frontier stage, and in his travels around the state he could see the layers of social and political development. One of Turner's last students, Merle Curti used in-depth analysis of local history in Trempeleau County to test Turner's thesis about democracy. Turner's view was that American democracy, "involved widespread participation in the making of decisions affecting the common life, the development of initiative and self-reliance, and equality of economic and cultural opportunity.

It thus also involved Americanization of immigrant. He found that even landless young farm workers were soon able to obtain their own farms. Free land on the frontier therefore created opportunity and democracy, for both European immigrants as well as old stock Yankees. By the mids, the population of Wisconsin Territory had exceeded ,, more than twice the number of people required for Wisconsin to become a state.

In , the territorial legislature voted to apply for statehood. That fall, delegates debated the state constitution. The document produced by this convention was considered extremely progressive for its time. It banned commercial banking, granted married women the right to own property, and left the question of African-American suffrage to a popular vote.

Most Wisconsinites considered the first constitution to be too radical, however, and voted it down in an April referendum. In December , a second constitutional convention was called. This convention resulted in a new, more moderate state constitution that Wisconsinites approved in a March referendum, enabling Wisconsin to become the 30th state on May 29, Wisconsin was the last state entirely east of the Mississippi River and by extension the last state formed entirely from territory assigned to the U.

With statehood, came the creation of the University of Wisconsin-Madison , which is the state's oldest public university. The creation of this university was set aside in the state charter. Lead mining in southwest Wisconsin began to decline after and when the combination of less easily accessible lead ore and the California Gold Rush made miners leave the area. The lead mining industry in mining communities such as Mineral Point managed to survive into the s, but the industry was never as prosperous as it was before the decline.

By Wisconsin's population was , The second largest group were the Germans, numbering roughly 38,, followed by 28, British immigrants from England, Scotland and Wales. There were roughly 63, Wisconsin-born residents of the state.

The Yankee migrants would be the dominant political class in Wisconsin for many years. A railroad frenzy swept Wisconsin shortly after it achieved statehood. The first railroad line in the state was opened between Milwaukee and Waukesha in by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St.

Paul and Pacific Railroad. The railroad pushed on, reaching Milton, Wisconsin in , Stoughton, Wisconsin in , and the capital city of Madison in The company reached its goal of completing a rail line across the state from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River when the line to Prairie du Chien was completed in Shortly after this, other railroad companies completed their own tracks, reaching La Crosse in the west and Superior in the north, spurring development in those cities.

By the end of the s, railroads crisscrossed the state, enabling the growth of other industries that could now easily ship products to markets across the country. Nelson Dewey , the first governor of Wisconsin , was a Democrat. Between and , Wisconsin had three Democratic governors , all of whom were in office prior to , four Republican governors, all of whom were in office after , and one Whig governor, Leonard J.

Farwell , who served from to Under Farwell's governorship, Wisconsin became the second state to abolish capital punishment. In the presidential elections of and , the Democratic Party won Wisconsin. In the elections of , , and , the Republican Party won the state.

Some of them brought radical political ideas to the state. In the s, stop-overs on the underground railroad were set up in the state and abolitionist groups were formed. One such group was the Republican party. On March 20, , the first county meeting of the Republican Party of the United States, consisting of about thirty people, was held in the Little White Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin.

Ripon claims to be the birthplace of the Republican Party, as does Jackson, Michigan, where the first statewide convention was held. A notable instance of abolitionism in Wisconsin was the rescue of Joshua Glover , an escaped slave from St.

Louis who sought refuge in Racine, Wisconsin in He was caught in by federal marshals and put in a jail at Cathedral Square in Milwaukee, where he waited to be returned to his owner. A mob of 5, people led by Milwaukee abolitionist Sherman Booth , himself a "Yankee" transplant from rural New York, [45] sprung Glover from jail and helped him escape to Canada via the underground railroad.

In the s, two-thirds of immigrants to Wisconsin came from the eastern United States, the other one-third being foreign-born. The majority of the foreign born were German immigrants. Many Irish and Norwegian immigrants also came to Wisconsin in the s. Northern Europeans, many of whom were persecuted in their home countries because of their support for the failed bourgeois Revolutions of , often chose Wisconsin because of the liberal constitution of human rights such as the state's unusual recognition of immigrants' right to vote and rights to citizenship.

Yankee settlers from New England started arriving in Wisconsin in the s spread throughout the southern half of the territory. They dominated early politics. Most of them started as farmers, but the larger proportion moved to towns and cities as entrepreneurs, businessmen and professionals. Of these, 3, were killed in action or mortally wounded, 8, died of disease, and were killed in accidents. The total mortality was 12, men, about Most Wisconsin troops served in the western theater, although several Wisconsin regiments fought in the east, such as the 2nd Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment , 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment , and 7th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment , which formed part of the Iron Brigade.

The 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment , which fought in the western theater of war, is also worthy of mention, having fought at the Battle of Iuka , the Siege of Vicksburg , the Red River Campaign , and the Battle of Nashville. The 8th Wisconsin is also known for its mascot , Old Abe.

Agriculture was a major component of the Wisconsin economy during the 19th century. Wheat was a primary crop on early Wisconsin farms. In fact, during the mid 19th century, Wisconsin produced about one sixth of the wheat grown in the United States. However, wheat rapidly depleted nutrients in the soil, especially nitrogen, and was vulnerable to insects, bad weather, and wheat leaf rust.

In the s, chinch bugs arrived in Wisconsin and damaged wheat across the state. As the soil lost its quality and prices dropped, the practice of wheat farming moved west into Iowa and Minnesota. Some Wisconsin farmers responded by experimenting with crop rotation and other methods to restore the soil's fertility, but a larger number turned to alternatives to wheat. In parts of northern Wisconsin, farmers cultivated cranberries and in a few counties in south central Wisconsin, farmers had success growing tobacco, [49] but the most popular replacement for wheat was dairy farming.

As wheat fell out of favor, many Wisconsin farmers started raising dairy cattle and growing feed crops, which were better suited to Wisconsin's climate and soil. One reason for the popularity of dairy farming was that many of Wisconsin's farmers had come to the state from New York, the leading producer of dairy products at the time.

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