Madison County, New York

She pretended that through her art, she found that a certain David Ream had taken the wagon cloth, and that it was concealed in his house. No Stomach For Cancer, Inc. Gerald Ham's summer, article ,"The Prophet and the Mummyjums His general occupation for the last 30 years or more, was stowing away vegetables Nice tracks and both sides non-comp.

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Stephen Paddock identified as gunman , Las Vegas Shooting: A lone gunman released a rapid-fire barrage of bullets from the 32nd floor of a Las Vegas hotel late Sunday, killing at least 50 people and injuring more than others attending a country music festival below, police said.

It was the worst mass shooting in modern American history. The shooter, who was identified by law enforcement officials as Stephen Craig Paddock, 64, of Mesquite, Nevada, fired shot after shot from a room at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino down on the crowd of about 22,, sending terrified concertgoers running for their lives.

More than 50 dead, over injured. Las Vegas deadly mass shooting gunman identified as Stephen … abc7. Las Vegas gunman identified by police as year … http: It was pure evil ….

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We promise we will not let you down. Checkout our network on the top of the page. Some of the PBA Associations in our network include: In this courtroom sketch, pop singer Taylor Swift speaks from the witness stand during a trial Thursday, Aug.

Swift testified Thursday that David Mueller, a former radio DJ, reached under her skirt and intentionally grabbed her backside during a meet-and-a-greet photo session before a concert in Denver. The witness said fights happen often at the location and many homeless people sleep in the area. The fight the person recorded involved customers who were drinking beer inside the restaurant but who had not purchased food, according to the witness.

They said the security guard went up to the group, asking them to leave because they were loitering. A year-old Berkley man is accused of crimes related to the attempted Sept. Floyd Russell Galloway Jr. Farmington Hills police are calling Galloway a person of interest in the separate disappearance of year-old Danielle Stislicki of Farmington Hills, who was last seen leaving her job at Metlife in Southfield about 5 p. Now one woman with an interesting tie to the case is looking for answers.

Darren Drake, 32, was one of eight people killed Oct. The maker of said note is hereby forbid paying paying the amount to any person but the subscriber. Whoever will return said Note to the subscriber, shall be handsomely rewarded. Ontario, June 12th, The "Joseph Smith, jr. The Farmington Smith reportedly could peer into a seer stone and locate such "lost" items as "a note of hand" with considerable facility.

This same notice ran for the next two weeks in the Palmyra paper. Mitchell's collection is a letter from the Chippewa tribe of Indians, to the Sioux, with the answer of the Sioux to the Chippewas, done during the summer of Both are executed with the point of a knife or some other hard body upon the bark of the birth tree.

They are examples of picture writing, bordering upon the symbolic or hieroglyphic, and show the manner in which the aborigines of North America communicate their ideas at the present day. After having served the purpose for which they were produced by Capt. Douglass from the Mississippi, where they had been placed by their authors and brought home by that gentleman as specimen of the way pursued by those people to transact their public business.

On the 3d inst. Peck, a preacher on the Methodist circuit; she is a natural trotter -- has a wart in her right ear, -- was 9 years old the last Spring.

The owner of said Mare is requested to prove property, pay charges and take her away. Ontario, July 14th, As with the "Note Lost" notice in the previous week's issue of the Farmer, the mentioned "Joseph Smith," of Ontario twp. Peck" who bought Smith's mare was most likely the Rev.

George Smith of the Methodist Genesee Conference. Peck later wrote an account of these early times, entitled Early Methodism. That book furnishes some biographical information on the Rev. The operations on the eastern section of the grand canal have advanced to Schenectady flats, within about two miles of the city.

The work is progressing with remarkable spirit, and promises completion much sooner than its warmest friends had originally expected. At a point 11 miles west of Schenectady, in the town of Florida, several curious things have been discovered; partly aboriginal and partly European Under the latter head may be classed certain other things recently found, such as. The blade of a large knife.

A stout nail whose point is bent up as it by driving against a hard and resisting body. Several plates of brass , which probably belonged to cartouch boxes These disclosures of the materials that are concealed under ground, furnish the Antiquarian and the naturalist, interesting materials for speculation as to the operations of art and of nature in past time.

Powell, in the town of William in this County, with four or five pieces of Iron or Steel appearing on its surface, similar to the heads of large spike nails. In interior surfaces of the blocks, appear to have been polished smooth with indentings where the blocks lay, as smooth as marble, although the stone itself was rough and gritty.

But the greatest curiosity is, that one of the blocks was completely buried in the stone, about a quarter of an inch or more below its surface. The only conclusion that can be made, respecting which, is. Probably the "cartouch boxes" alluded to were antique cartridge boxes carried by infantry soldiers during the War of and before. Discarded empty boxes would have disintegrated over time, dislodging their protective metal plates.

A set of brass plates, assembled from such sources, might have appeared as quite a curiosity to civilian villagers of the s. Another interesting reference to an early brass plate discovery is recorded by J.

Spaulding on page 48 of his Historical Relics of the White Mountains: About the year , a curious brass plate, covered with hieroglyphic inscriptions, of apparently ancient date, was found under a rock near the top of Mount Washington. When it was placed there, or by whom, is yet a profound mystery. There was through the plate a hole, and a piece of rusty copper, that appeared to be a bolt once used to secure it to the rock.

According to tradition, this brass was of irregular shape, having been apparently much eaten by rust; and, from its real appearance, the characters were said to be in an unknown tongue; and, in short, of very imperfect and doubtful import. This was found by an explorer, or hunter; and, being carried to the then new settlement of Jackson, below the mountain, for a while created a short-lived excitement, and at last disappeared entirely. Peck attributed the origin of Joseph Smith's "ancient" Nephite record to a hoax involving "some old copper plates for engravings, which he showed for his golden plates.

Science and religion are beginning to claim their tention, and to receive that support which they so richly merit at their hands. Our school has already become an ornament in our village. Our youth begin to vie with each other in the improvement of their minds, and to requite their parents for their exertions to render them useful members of society [and] an honor to their connexions. But this is not all -- Instead of strutting up and down our streets on the Sabbath, going from one tavern to another, twirling the rattan and puffing the cigar, those necessary appendages of a dandie, Our young gentlemen are set in the sanctuary, attentively listening to that [Word].

And instead of riding out in parties of giddy, unmeaning and unsatisfying pleasure, the young ladies are seen to grace the church with their presence, on this holy day Such a change we could not forbear publishing to the world Note: The editor Timothy C.

Strong reflects upon a recent change in public morality and piety in Palmyra in , but he does not attribute the social transformation to the effects of any particular species of religious excitement, camp meetings, revivals.

Neither do local church records of this time indicate any significant increase in baptisms and admissions to denominational membership lists. Perhaps a portion of the religious transformation had its root in increased attendance at Ontario county Methodist class meetings, where no life-changing salvation "experience" was required for participation and attendees did not have to become full-fledged Methodists to go to church. Billings' on Friday next. In the dead of winter, with little agricultural work to be done, the "young people of the village of Palmyra" were free to attend a few weeks of school, visit with their friends, or even emulate their elders in carrying on some public debate.

Orsamus Turner, who worked on the local paper at this time, later recalled that Joseph Smith, jr. A most extraordinary change within two or three weeks past, has taken place in regard to the religious state of this village Such hath been and is still the manifest power of God, through the overwhelming influence of the Divine Spirit, that the whole place exhibits the aspect of a house of mourning. Large collections assemble every evening in the week at the house of God for worship and various religious exercises.

These meetings are solemn beyond description. Persons who had formerly opposed awakenings, and persons of every other character are struck with amazement -- and exclaim, this must be the work of God. A large number of [hopeful] converts are now rejoicing in the Saviour, and scarcely an individual can now be found in the place whose mind is not, in a considerable degree, solemnized. Although the Register and Western Farmer from had chronicled revivals in Mass. Canandaigua, Friday, March 8, We shall not presume to point out those impositions which are placed to the credit of the Christian Religion, but our columns shall be ever open to plain truth, let it hit whom it may.

No Christian can deny that the Gospel of our blessed Saviour, since the Apostolic days, has been clouded by Popish superstition, even to the present time. In what manner are the clouds to be dispersed, that we may behold the brightness of the "Son of Righteousness" -- that we may behold the transcedent purity of the "Gospel of peace?

We are fully aware that we shall be eyed with suspicion by the craftsmen, but trusting to the purity of our motives, we shall not be awed into silence by this party or that, We would, however, particularly caution the public against the hue and cry too often raised in opposition to similar works. The practice of hanging a man and then trying him is frequently resorted to, to prejudice public opinion.

The above introductory remarks provides a fair specimen of the anti-clerical tone of the bi-weekly religious journal, "Plain Truth," edited and published by Lyman A. Spalding and Thomas B. Barnum of Canandiagua, Ontario Co. For more comments on this unusual publication, see the notes accompanying the Feb.

This notice is given, not to injure the boy -- but to forbid all persons harbouring or trusting him on my account; and to caution Printers not to employ him; as he left me, a week since, under pretence of going to visit his parents, in Almond, and has since, by letter, refused to return -- thereby, without provocation, violating a most solemn engagement.

Records Office, Angelica, Feb. Record office, Angelica, Feb. The above notice ran on the front page of the Western Farmer, for several weeks -- see, for example, the issue for April 3, In his reminiscences B. Franklin Cowdery an older second cousin of Oliver Cowdery recalls his printing business experience at Angelica, in these words: For several weeks we had no other help at case than the wife, as apprentice This subjected us sometimes to inconvenience January, , found us abiding in Lockport The 'Lockport Observatory' was the paper then published by our friend Orsamus Turner, whom we sometimes assisted and in whose office we printed a pamphlet edition of the New Militia Law, and late in autumn, printed our prospectus, with borrowed head lines from the two Batavia offices, for the 'Newport Patriot,' in the northern part of Genesee County.

Apparently the untimely departure of Hervey "Harvey" Newcomb , in February of , so crippled B. Franklin Cowdery's printing operations as to force him to cease publication of the Angelica Republican about eight months later. In his published writings, B. Franklin Cowdery does not indicate who eventually filled the vacant apprentice position in his mobile publishing ventures, but one set of historical researchers speculate that he called upon the services of Oliver Cowdery for this work -- probably around the beginning of , when B.

Franklin Cowdery moved his little family to the village of Lockport. Of the two who were with Franklin at Angelica, the first The other, who ran away in after only a year and went on to 'become a preacher of righteousness,' was Harvey Newcomb In , his family moved to Alfred, Allegany Co. Harvey remained with this paper only about a year, and then went to Buffalo where he edited the Buffalo Patriot Hervey "Harvy" Newcomb probably began his apprenticeship with B.

Franklin Cowdery, at Angelica, Allegany Co. His family lived nearby, in Alfred or in the adjoining township of Almond , Allegany Co. Jabez Cowdery's first great-grandchild born on a male line -- indicating the probability of Hervey ancestry among Betsey Smith's relatives. The authors of The Spalding Enigma speculate that the Hervey or Hervy name popped up again, in the case of Oliver himself.

For example, two of the sons of Oliver's eldest brother, Warren, bore the names "Lyman Hervy" b. In addition, Oliver Pliny, in turn, had a son, "Charles Hervy" b. Jabez Cowdery of Tunbridge, VT. Henry Torrey has niminated himself to the same office.

A two dollar purchase of such ad space probably bought 2 or 3 appearances of the advertisement in a weekly paper. A very extraordinary discovery was a few years since made in Guatimala, Mexican Isthmus of the ruins of an extensive city, which had for ages been covered with herbage and underwood. The originals of them have arrived in London, and will soon be presented to the world.

The "extraordinary discovery" alluded to above, was not so much any contemporary uncovering "of the ruins of an extensive city," as it was the propitious recovery of Captain Del Rio's report on the Mayan ruins located near Palenque, in what is now Mexico.

A copy of this manuscript report, accompanied by illustrations, was sent from Guatamala to London for publication by Henry Berthoud in The publication of this and of subsequent reports of interesting ancient ruins in the jungles of Central America prompted The Geographical Society of Paris in to offer substantial cash prizes for the best accounts of various subjects pertaining to American antiquities, written and submitted to the Society for study and publication.

The next twenty years would see a great expansion in European and American interest in pre-Conquest Latin American civilizations, culminating with the publication of John L. Prescott's History of the Conquest of Mexico in This same news item appeared in various American newspapers during the summer of , the Newport Rhode-Island Republican of May 1, and provided one of the first published sources -- the report was eventually picked up and reprinted by The Times of London, on Sept.

As already mentioned, the discovery made a noticeable impact among European "antiquarians;" the publication of the old Del Rio report also had some effect upon certain American historians, as can be seen in John V. Yates and Joseph W. Moulton's publication of their first volume of the History of the State of New York, in which the writers devote several pages to PreColumbian civilizations and make prominent mention of the Del Rio booklet on pp.

The Yates and Moulton history was sold in New York book shops during the mid s and would have been readily available in places like Palmyra. The frequent assertions made in some quarters, that persons like the young Joseph Smith, Jr. An illustrated example of what was then available, in regard to ancient Meso-American civilizations, may also be seen on pp.

The Wonders of Nature Yates and Moulton speculated, in their volume, that the ancient civilizations of Latin America extended, in somewhat diminished form, all the way to the southern shores of the Great Lakes, and thus accounted for the old mounds and earthen fortifications of that region. While it is unlikely that copies of the Del Rio publication, with its fascinating engravings of the Palenque ruins and ancient Mayan inscriptions, circulated in such out of the way corners of civilization as Manchester, New York and the "Great Bend" region of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania, copies of the widely distributed Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post no doubt did occasionally turn up in such places.

During the last half of the s, probably the only description of the Palenque "glyphs" published in the United States, was in Prof. Rafinesque's letter of Jan. In his letter Rafinesque describes in some detail the "curvilinear elements" of what he called "the Otolum characters" of the Palenque ruins -- explaining how they corresponded with "the Old Lybian, or primitive Alphabet of North Africa.

Rafinesque's Atlantic Journal, issued in the middle of That article was accompanied by an engraving of Rafinesque's fanciful tabulation of ancient Lybian characters and Mayan glyphs. This article and its engraved table were partly reprinted in Josiah Priest's book , American Antiquities, and from there frequently quoted or cited by Mormon writers as a demonstration that Book of Mormon "characters" matched the form of native American glyphs.

Little, a bookseller in Albany, was offering the booklet for sale as late as see the advertisements section the Jan.

Every country has its money-diggers, who are full in the belief that vast treasures lie concealed in the earth. So far from being a new project, it dates its origin with the first man who ever weilded a spade. Even in these latter days , we find men so much in love with the "root of all evil," and so firm in the belief that it may be dug up, that they will traverse hill and dale, climb the loftiest mountain, and even work their way into the bowels of the earth in search of it.

Indeed, digging for money hid in the earth, is a very common thing; and in this state it is even considered an honorable and profitable employment. We could name, if we pleased, at least five hundred respectable men, who do, in the simplicity and sincerity of their hearts, verily believe that immense treasures lie concealed upon our Green Mountains; many of whom have been for a number of years, most industriously and perserveringly engaged in digging it up.

Some of them have succeeded beyond their most sanguine expectations. One gentleman in Parkerstown, on the summit of the mountain, after digging with unyielding confidence and untiring diligence, for ten or twelve years, found a sufficient quantity of money to build him a comodious house for his own convenience, and to fill it with comforts for weary travellers.

On stopping lately to refresh, we were delighted with the view of an anchor on the sign, emblematical of his hope of success, while we left him industriously digging for more. Another gentleman on the east shore of Lake Champlain, we are credibly informed, has actually dug up the enormous sum of fifty thousand dollars!

The incredulous and unbelieving may stare at this assertion, but it is nevertheless true, and we do not hesitate to declare our belief that digging for money is a most certain way of obtaining it.

Much, however, depends on the skillful use of the genuine mineral rod. Don't dig too deep, is an appropriate maxim, with all who are versed in the art. Wood's Iron Plough, skillfully guided, is sure to break the enchantment, and turn up the glittering dust in every furrow. Countless treasures yet remain hid in the earth. Speed the plough -- ply the hoe -- 'twill all come to light. The best time for digging money is early in the morning, while the dew is on. The pines crashed beneath their feet, and the lakes shrunk when they slaked their thirst; the forceful javelin in vain was hurled, and the barbed arrow fell harmless by their side.

Forests were laid waste at a meal; the groans of expiring animals were every where heard and whole villages inhabited by men were destroyed in a moment. The cry of universal distress extended even to the region of peace in the West, and the Good Spirit interposed to save the unhappy. The forked lightning gleamed all around, and the bolts of Heaven were hurled upon the cruel destroyers alone, and the mountains echoed with the bellowings of death.

All were killed except one male, the fiercest of the race, and him even the artillery of the skies assailed in vain. He ascended the bluest summit which shades the source of the Monongahela; roared aloud, bid defiance to every vengeance. The red lightning scorched the lofty firs, and rived the knotty oaks, but only glanced upon the enraged monster. At length, maddened with fury, he leaped over the waves of the west at a bound, and at this moment reigns the uncontrolled monarch of the wilderness.

The s was a great time for seeking buried treasure, it seems. The Philadelphia National Gazette publicized the delusion in an article it reprinted from the Hallowell Gazette on Mar. The Montpelier Watchman article was reprinted in several "yankee" papers, including the May 4, issue of the New Hampshire Sentinel. Certain avaricious New Englanders spread their money-digging propensities and methods westward to New York, where the novelty took a strong hold.

Despite the Montpelier Watchman's tongue-in-cheek reporting of the "skillful use of the genuine mineral rod" and the need "to break the enchantment" guarding buried treasures, such beliefs associated with s money-digging were taken seriously by the practitioners of that dubious trade. So, it appears that the subject of money digging was of as much interest to people in Ontario Co. Daniel Dorchester's article, "St. It is about fifty feet in length and eighteen in breadth at one extremity, and gradually terminating to a complete point at the other.

Within this space large quantities of human bones have been dug up, apparently of all ages. Some of the skull bones are very large, and one thigh bone in particular is said to be much too large for the present race of men.

The bodies appear to have been thrown in without any order or regularity, as the bones are found cross-wise and in every form. No relics of utensils or implements have been found with them, and whether they were the victims of a battle, or from what cause they were disposed of in this manner, we pretend not to say, but from the works in the vicinity of the mound resembling fortifications, we should judge that to have been the case.

Large trees have grown directly over the mound, and the bones on being exposed to the air soon become calcareous. After giving this statement, we leave it to the curious, and those better skilled on this subject, to make such speculations as these facts render deductible.

A large number of human bones in the last stage of decay, were lately found in the town of Nunda -- Allegany Co. This article was reprinted in the Aug. The skeleton was discovered about ten feet from the summit of the wall, and four from its base, or common level of the adjacent earth.

The bones are said by those who first discovered them, to have extended nine or ten feet, from head to foot! They immediately crumbled on exposure to the air. The wall is composed of clay, which is readily converted into bricks -- for which purpose it is rapidly disappearing before the devouring hand of man.

The layer of earth on which the skeleton was found, was composed of dark fine sand, much resembling alluvial soil; it extended three or four rods in length, and is totally unfit for the purposes for which the remainder of the wall is using.

Persons calling for the above, are requested to say, that they are advertised. All accounts extant, relative to the size of the ancient settlers of our country, agree that this race of beings must have been larger than the present; but none that I have seen give any evidence of this fact.

From my own observation, I have evidence at least of one person of gigantic stature. In the year , I opened, with several other persons who accompanied me for the purpose, one of the flat mounds common in the western country.

It was built of regular layers of flat stones, and covered lightly with earth. This was 4 miles west of the town of Worthington, in Ohio, and within a few rods of the banks of the river Scioto. Miller, about yards from the spot, who informed us that he had taken a skeleton from the mound adjoining the one we had examined, which was supposed to be, when living, a man of at least 7 feet 4 inches. He stated that such was the opinion of all who had seen the bones in his possession -- that the bone of the leg, which had lost a little at each end, was then longer than the bone of the tallest man in the settlement, measuring from the heel to the cap of the knee.

Miller stated that he had also in his possession, the jaw bone of this skeleton, which he said, would cover loosely the face of any of his neighbors; and that, when he found the skeleton, he picked from one of the joints of the neck bone, which was also much larger than any he had seen before, a stone arrow point; from which circumstances, it was thought his death had been occasioned.

I made many inquiries of Mr. Miller, who seemed to be a very intelligent man. He informed me that he had been living at his residence on the Scioto, for many years; -- that when he first settled there, he was told by all the old Indians that these mounds existed at a period beyond the recollection of the oldest of them, and that the tribe of Indians before them could give no account of the mounds, other than that they were burying places before they inhabited the country.

From these circumstances, together with some others, which have come under my observation, I have been of opinion, that the bones frequently found in these mounds, must have been the skeletons of a race of beings inhabiting the country, of whom the Indians had no knowledge. The most remarkable circumstance stated by Mr. Miller was, that when ploughing his field, he traced plainly the remains of an ancient building in the form of a house, as there was a manifest difference in the appearance of the earth; and pointing at the same time to the hearth stone in his fire-place, he observed "the hearth-stone which you see there, I took myself from the place where I suppose the fire-place was in the ancient building of which I speak.

During the war, and while on my way to Detroit, I intended calling on Mr. Miller, for more particular information, but upon my arrival at Worthington, I learned that he was dead. Every information tending to prove the existence of a vast ancient population of any part of our country, ought to be preserved -- but few persons can or will afford to spend time and money to the attainment of such an object. I have occasionally noted what had passed under my observation since the year in the western country; and, as I find leisure, will transmit them to you to be filed away through the medium of your paper, till better proof can be obtained of the existence of a vast ancient population of our country.

It would, in my opinion, be a very laudable act in the general government to encourage or authorize some competent person to collect the most important facts in relation to this subject. And the present state of profound peace and tranquillity of our country is, perhaps as favorable as any other in the history of our national affairs for such an undertaking.

This article was also reprinted in the Oct. Noah's scheme for a gathering of Israel in America. Early settlers moving into the western country once frequently encountered burial mounds and graves containing the bones of such ancient giants , but evidence of these exceptionally tall and robust Indians is rarely uncovered today.

The prevalence of these reports during the s and s lead some Americans to speculate that their land had once been inhabited by a civilized perhaps white race of "mighty men of yore.

LDS author Phyllis C. Olive, on pages of her book, The Lost Tribes of the Book of Mormon, sets forth her evidence that the Book of Mormon people were not only the "Mound-Builders," but that they were also a "large and mighty nation living in the near vicinity of the Hill Cumorah and throughout the entire mound building region -- the giant, Mound Builders so long sought for; a people who bear remarkable similarities to those described in the Book of Mormon.

The thought does not seem to have occurred to these Mormon writers, that pre reports of American antiquities could have influenced the writing of the Book of Mormon itself. In Canandaigua, the 31st ult. Gideon Granger, aged His death was sudden, although he had been confined most of the time for several months, and scarcely a hope was entertained of his restoration to health.

Granger was born at Suffield , Conn. In '94 he was elected from his native town, a member of the state legislature, and returned by his fellow citizens to that body for several successive years Granger was appointed to the office of Post Master General, and continued to discharge its duties until the spring of , when he removed to this state. In he was elected a Senator from the western district of our state legislature; but in the spring of the state of his health compelled him to resign his seat.

He was distinguished for talents and intelligence -- his views of public affairs were elevated and enlarged, evincing a liberal mind, matured by deep research and much experience. Gideon Granger was the business partner of Solomon Spalding, during the brief period when Spalding first acquired his lands in the Ohio Western Reserve.

The two men may have first met in Connecticut, where both studied law during the s. It appears doubtful that Gideon Granger and Solomon Spalding maintained much contact after about , even though Granger continued his ownership of a parcel of land adjacent to lots Spalding was selling just east of New Salem, Ohio.

Also, although the pro-masonic newspapers linked Gideon's son Francis Granger romantically to Lucinda Morgan, there is no evidence that either Gideon Granger or Francis Granger were ever personally acquainted with Lucinda, destined to become one of Joseph Smith, Jr. A gentleman in Pompey, N.

The stone being 14 inches long, breadth 12, and depth 9, with the figure of a tree and a serpent climbing it, between the De and the L. The tree, with the serpemt climbing it, clearly denotes the writer's faith in the apostacy or fall of man, as described in the history of Moses.

The X or cross denotes the writer's faith in a crucified saviour, or the truth of the christian religion. Mosheim, the most authentic historian, informs us that Leo X was made pope in , and held the office of Pontificate to the year If so, the year would be the 6th year of his Pontificate. This seems to prove that the writer of the inscription was a Christian and a Roman Catholic. The Indians are reported the aborigines of North America; but I doubt the truth of this proposition.

The fortifications and remains of antiquity in Ohio and elsewhere, clearly prove them to be the work of some other people than the Indians. Many of these fortifications were not forts, but religious temples, or places of public worship. Many of them much resemble the druidical temples still existing in England. The first settlers of North America were probably the Asiatics, the descendants of Shem.

Europe was settled by the children of Japheth. The Asiatics, at an early period, might easily have crossed the Pacific Ocean, and made settlements in N. The descendants of Japheth might afterwards cross the Atlantic, and subjugate the Asiatics, or drive them to S.

What conderful catastrophe destroyed at once the first inhabitants, with the species of the mammoth, is beyond the researches of the best scholar and greatest antiquaran. Discoveries of this kind furnish subjects for the investigation of the learned, and gratify the imagination of the inquisitive We have received several numbers of this publication. It continues to toil, with fierce zeal, in its thankless vocation, casting obloquy and contempt on missionaries and all their abettors; lauding, with enthusiasm, the virtues of savages, and the charms of the uncivilized state; deploring the disasterous influence of missionary efforts on the morals and happiness of the heathen; and yet, with marvelous consistency, pleading the cause of benevolence in our own country.

Some of our friends, have expressed a wish, that our S TAR might chase away, with pure and solutary light, the lurid gleams of this torch of discord, which serve only to make darkness viable. We conceive, however, that our time would be rather unprophitably occupied, in exposing the falsehoods and hallucinations of a work, which is little known, and which carries in its shameless profligancy, an effectual antidote to the maliquity of its aims.

Plain Truth was a bi-weekly magazine published on the press of the Ontario Republican at Canandaigua. Started on March 8, by Thomas B. Barnum and Lyman A. Spalding, Plain Truth continued until the end of , reflecting odd specimens of Episcopalian religious thought intermixed with Quaker notions, all of which was probably disdained by most Evangelical Christians of that period; see the Oct.

The young Lyman A. Spalding left his partnership with Barnum in and moved to the new town of Lockport. There he established the first grist mill in that place see Chipman P. Turner's Niagara County Directory, , p. This paper was published on the press of [Edwin] Alanson Cooley. It is thought that between and Lyman funded the printing of several anti-clerical religious tracts on the press of Orsamus Turner's Lockport Observatory predecessor of the Lockport Balance.

For more on Lyman A. Spalding and Orsamus Turner Chipman P. He was evidently born at Attica, N. Cooley was a member of the Genesee Co. Spalding -- see the Dr. After Cowdery's death in , Cooley appears to have moved to central Wisconson, where he died in Throughout Franklin Cowdery was an "evening editor" who printed up job items like tracts and almanacs when Turner's press was not engaged in publishing the Lockport Observatory.

If he did, Spalding's oddities were likely distributed throughout the region by pedestrian peddlers who sold almanacs, tracts and pamphlets, on a commission basis. One such local distributor was mentioned by Orsamus Turner in John's indentification of Franklin Cowdery's cousin Oliver, as earlier being "occupied in writing and printing pamphlets, with which, as a pedestrian Pedlar, he visited the towns and villages of western New York and Canada.

The subject of this communication is that "most clumsy of all impositions, known among us as Joe Smith's 'Gold Bible.

Norton speculates that the unnamed writer may have been Thomas B. Barnum of Canandaigua "Comparative Images: Probably Norton is correct in this identification. Not the least of these parallels is the " Son of Righteousness" term both publications favor over the biblical " Sun of righteousness" phraseology. Whether or not Joseph Smith, jr. Presumably a person like Martin Harris would have ocasionally perused the periodical, however.

Harris had Quaker connections, an interest in offbeat religion, and lived close enough to Canadaigua to have known about Plain Truth. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections.

Lyman's father was a first cousin of Solomon Spalding of Ashford: Solomon's father was Josiah , whose younger brother Oliver was the father of Lyman's father, Erastus The novel begins with the title character, Jane Eyre, aged 10, living with her maternal uncle's family, the Reeds, as a result of her uncle's dying wish.

It is several years after her parents died of typhus. Reed, Jane's uncle, was the only member of the Reed family who was ever kind to Jane.

Jane's aunt, Sarah Reed, dislikes her, treats her as a burden, and discourages her children from associating with Jane. Reed and her three children are abusive to Jane, physically, emotionally, and spiritually. The nursemaid Bessie proves to be Jane's only ally in the household, even though Bessie sometimes scolds Jane, rather harshly.

Excluded from the family activities, Jane leads a very unhappy childhood, with only a doll and books with which to entertain herself.

One day, as punishment for defending herself against her cousin John Reed, after the latter knocks her down, Jane is relegated to the red room in which her late uncle had died; there, she faints from panic after she thinks she has seen his ghost.

She is subsequently attended to by the kindly apothecary Mr. Lloyd to whom Jane reveals how unhappy she is living at Gateshead Hall. He recommends to Mrs. Reed that Jane should be sent to school, an idea Mrs.

Reed then enlists the aid of the harsh Mr. Brocklehurst, director of Lowood Institution, a charity school for girls. Brocklehurst that Jane has a "tendency for deceit", which he interprets as her being a "liar". Before Jane leaves, however, she confronts Mrs. Reed and declares that she'll never call her "aunt" again, that Mrs. Reed and her daughters, Georgiana and Eliza, are the ones who are deceitful, and that she will tell everyone at Lowood how cruelly Mrs.

At Lowood Institution, a school for poor and orphaned girls, Jane soon finds that life is harsh, but she attempts to fit in and befriends an older girl, Helen Burns, who is able to accept her punishment philosophically. During a school inspection by Mr. Brocklehurst, Jane accidentally breaks her slate, thereby drawing attention to herself. He then stands her on a stool, brands her a liar, and shames her before the entire assembly.

Jane is later comforted by Helen. Miss Temple, the caring superintendent, facilitates Jane's self-defence and writes to Mr. Lloyd, whose reply agrees with Jane's. Jane is then publicly cleared of Mr. Helen and Miss Temple are the two main role models that positively guide Jane's development, despite the harsh treatment she has received from many others.

The 80 pupils at Lowood are subjected to cold rooms, poor meals, and thin clothing. Many students fall ill when a typhus epidemic strikes, and Jane's friend Helen dies of consumption in her arms. Brocklehurst's maltreatment of the students is discovered, several benefactors erect a new building and install a sympathetic management committee to moderate Mr. Conditions at the school then improve dramatically.

The name Lowood symbolizes the "low" point in Jane's life where she was maltreated. After six years as a student and two as a teacher at Lowood, Jane decides to leave, like her friend and confidante Miss Temple, who recently married. She advertises her services as a governess and receives one reply, from Alice Fairfax, housekeeper at Thornfield Hall. One night, while Jane is walking to a nearby town, a horseman passes her.

The horse slips on ice and throws the rider. Despite the rider's surliness, Jane helps him to get back onto his horse. Later, back at Thornfield, she learns that this man is Edward Rochester, master of the house. At Jane's first meeting with him within Thornfield, Mr. Rochester teases her, accusing her of bewitching his horse to make him fall. He also talks strangely in other ways, but Jane is able to stand up to his initially arrogant manner. Rochester and Jane soon come to enjoy each other's company, and spend many evenings together.

Odd things start to happen at the house, such as a strange laugh, a mysterious fire in Mr. Rochester's room from which Jane saves Rochester by rousing him and throwing water on him and the fire , and an attack on a house guest named Mr.

After Jane saved Mr. Rochester from the fire, he thanked her tenderly and emotionly, and that night Jane felt strange emotions of her own, towards him. Next day, however, he left unexpectedly for a distant party gathering, and several days later returned with the whole party, including the beautiful and talented Blanche Ingram. Jane sees that Blanche and Mr. Rochester favour each other, and starts to feel jealous, particularly because she also sees that Blanche is snobbish and heartless, and unworthy of "her" Mr.

Jane then receives word that Mrs. Reed is calling for her, because she has suffered a stroke after John Reed has died.

Jane returns to Gateshead and remains there for a month, attending to her dying aunt. Reed confesses to Jane that she wronged her, giving Jane a letter from Jane's paternal uncle, Mr. John Eyre, in which he asks for her to live with him and be his heir. Reed admits to telling Mr.