Poker Continuation Bet
The purpose of a straddle is to "buy" the privilege of last action, which on the first round with blinds is normally the player in the big blind. Second, calling or raising out of turn, in addition to the information it provides, assumes all players who would act before the out of turn player would not exceed the amount of the out-of-turn bet. Don't worry, it doesn't happen very often. All casinos and most home games play poker by what are called table stakes rules, which state that each player starts each deal with a certain stake, and plays that deal with that stake. Strategy Plays Continuation Bet. Sometimes a fixed-limit game is played as a kill game. If the half bet rule were being used, then that raise would count as a genuine raise and the first player would be entitled to re-raise if they chose to creating a side pot for the amount of their re-raise and the third player's call, if any.
Standard poker rules require that raises must be at least equal to the amount of the previous bet or raise. In no-limit and pot-limit games, if a player opens action in a betting round by placing any number of chips in the pot without a verbal declaration, or if they place two or more chips in the pot of sufficient value to raise an outstanding bet or raise without a verbal declaration, then the full amount placed in the pot will be assumed to be the amount of the bet or raise.
In such cases, instead of slowing down the game by asking the dealer or another player to provide "change" a player may simply verbally declare the amount they are betting while placing a chip s of sufficient value to make good on the bet. Any "change" will be returned to them by the dealer if necessary.
Today, most public cardrooms prefer for players to use the raise to standard as opposed to the raise by standard. In the event of any ambiguity in a player's verbal action while raising, the player will normally be bound to raise to the stated amount. In fixed-limit games, the size of bets and raises is determined by the specified stakes. Also, in fixed-limit and spread-limit games most casinos cap the total number of raises allowed in a single betting round typically three or four, not including the opening bet of a round.
It is common to suspend this rule when there are only two players betting in the round called being heads-up , since either player can call the last raise if they wish. Pot-limit and no-limit games do not have a limit on the number of raises. If, because of opening or raising, there is an amount bet that the player in-turn has not paid, the player must at least match that amount, or must fold; the player cannot pass or call a lesser amount except where table stakes rules apply.
To call is to match a bet or match a raise. A betting round ends when all active players have bet an equal amount or everyone folds to a player's bet or raise. If no opponents call a player's bet or raise, the player wins the pot.
The second and subsequent calls of a particular bet amount are sometimes called overcalls. This term is also sometimes used to describe a call made by a player who has put money in the pot for this round already. A player calling a raise before they have invested money in the pot in that round is cold calling. For example, if in a betting round, Alice bets, Dianne raises, and Carol calls, Carol "calls two bets cold".
A player calling instead of raising with a strong hand is smooth calling or flat calling , a form of slow play. Calling in the final betting round when a player thinks they do not have the best hand is called a crying call. Calling when a player has a relatively weak hand but suspects their opponent may be bluffing is called a hero call.
Calling a bet prior to the final betting round with the intention of bluffing on a later betting round is called a float. In public cardrooms, placing a single chip in the pot of any value sufficient to call an outstanding bet or raise without a verbal action declaring otherwise always constitutes a call. If necessary, any "change" from the chip will be returned to the player at the end of the betting round, or perhaps even sooner if this can conveniently be done. If, when it is a player's turn to act, the player already has an oversized chip in the pot that has not yet been "changed" and that is of sufficient value to call an outstanding bet or raise, then the player may call by tapping the table as if checking.
In public cardrooms and casinos where verbal declarations are binding, the word "call" is such a declaration. Saying "I call" commits the player to the action of calling, and only calling. Note that the verb "see" can often be used instead of "call": However, terms such as "overseeing" and "cold seeing" are not valid. To fold is to discard one's hand and forfeit interest in the current pot. No further bets are required by the folding player, but the player cannot win.
Folding may be indicated verbally or by discarding one's hand face down into the pile of other discards called the muck , or into the pot uncommon. For this reason it is also called mucking. In stud poker played in the United States , it is customary to signal folding by turning all of one's cards face down. Once a person indicates a fold or states I fold , that person cannot re-enter the hand.
In casinos in the United Kingdom , a player folds by giving their hand as is to the "house" dealer, who spreads the cards face up for the other players to see before mucking them. When participating in the hand, a player is expected to keep track of the betting action. Losing track of the amount needed to call, called the bet to the player , happens occasionally, but multiple occurrences of this slow the game down and so it is discouraged.
The dealer may be given the responsibility of tracking the current bet amount, from which each player has only to subtract their contribution, if any, thus far.
To aid players in tracking bets, and to ensure all players have bet the correct amount, players stack the amount they have bet in the current round in front of them.
When the betting round is over a common phrase is "the pot's good" , the players will push their stacks into the pot or the dealer will gather them into the pot. Tossing chips directly into the pot known as splashing the pot , though popular in film and television depictions of the game, causes confusion over the amount of a raise and can be used to hide the true amount of a bet. Likewise, string raises , or the act of raising by first placing chips to call and then adding chips to raise, causes confusion over the amount bet.
Both actions are generally prohibited at casinos and discouraged at least in other cash games. Most actions calls, raises or folds occurring out-of-turn —when players to the right of the player acting have not yet made decisions as to their own action—are considered improper, for several reasons.
First, since actions by a player give information to other players, acting out of turn gives the person in turn information that they normally would not have, to the detriment of players who have already acted. In some games, even folding in turn when a player has the option to check because there is no bet facing the player is considered folding out of turn since it gives away information which, if the player checked, other players would not have.
For instance, say that with three players in a hand, Player A has a weak hand but decides to try a bluff with a large opening bet.
Player C then folds out of turn while Player B is making up their mind. Player B now knows that if they fold, A will take the pot, and also knows that they cannot be re-raised if they call. This may encourage Player B, if they have a good "drawing hand" a hand currently worth nothing but with a good chance to improve substantially in subsequent rounds , to call the bet, to the disadvantage of Player A.
Second, calling or raising out of turn, in addition to the information it provides, assumes all players who would act before the out of turn player would not exceed the amount of the out-of-turn bet. This may not be the case, and would result in the player having to bet twice to cover preceding raises, which would cause confusion. A player is never required to expose their concealed cards when folding or if all others have folded; this is only required at the showdown.
Many casinos and public cardrooms using a house dealer require players to protect their hands. This is done either by holding the cards or, if they are on the table, by placing a chip or other object on top. Unprotected hands in such situations are generally considered folded and are mucked by the dealer when action reaches the player. This can spark heated controversy, and is rarely done in private games.
The style of game generally determines whether players should hold face-down cards in their hands or leave them on the table. Holding "hole" cards allows players to view them more quickly and thus speeds up gameplay, but spectators watching over a player's shoulder can communicate the strength of that hand to other players, even unintentionally.
Unwary players can hold their hand such that a "rubbernecker" in an adjacent seat can sneak a peek at the cards. Lastly, given the correct light and angles, players wearing glasses can inadvertently show their opponents their hole cards through the reflection in their glasses.
Thus for most poker variants involving a combination of faceup and facedown cards most variants of stud and community are dealt in this manner , the standard method is to keep hole cards face-down on the table except when it is that player's turn to act.
Making change out of the pot is allowed in most games; to avoid confusion, the player should announce their intentions first. Then, if opening or cold calling, the player may exchange a large chip for its full equivalent value out of the pot before placing their bet, or if overcalling may place the chip announcing that they are calling or raising a lesser amount and remove the change from their own bet for the round.
Making change should, in general, be done between hands whenever possible, when a player sees they are running low of an oft-used value. The house dealer at casinos often maintains a bank and can make change for a large amount of chips, or in informal games players can make change with each other or with unused chips in the set.
This prevents stoppages of play while a player figures change for a bet. Similarly, buying in for an additional amount should be done between hands once the player sees that they will be out of chips within a couple of hands if buy-ins cannot be handled by the dealer it can take two or three hands for an attendant to bring another tray to the table. Touching another player's chips without permission is a serious breach of protocol and can result in the player being barred from the casino.
Many tournaments require that larger denomination chips be stacked in front i. This is to discourage attempts to hide strength. Some informal games allow a bet to be made by placing the amount of cash on the table without converting it to chips, as this speeds up play.
However, the cash can easily be "ratholed" removed from play by simply pocketing it which is normally disallowed, and in casinos leaving cash on a table is a security risk, so many games and virtually all casinos require a formal "buy-in" when a player wishes to increase their stake.
Players in home games typically have both cash and chips available; thus, if money for expenses other than bets is needed, such as food, drinks and fresh decks of cards, players typically pay out of pocket. In casinos and public cardrooms, however, the use of cash is occasionally restricted, so players often establish a small cache of chips called the "kitty", used to pay for such things. Players contribute a chip of lowest value towards the kitty when they win a pot, and it pays for expenses other than bets such as "rent" formally known as time fees , tipping the dealer, buying fresh decks of cards some public cardrooms include this cost in the "rake" or other fees, while others charge for decks , and similar costs.
Public cardrooms have additional rules designed to speed up play, earn revenue for the casino such as the "rake" , improve security and discourage cheating. All poker games require some forced bets to create an initial stake for the players to contest, as well as an initial cost of being dealt each hand for one or more players.
The requirements for forced bets and the betting limits of the game see below are collectively called the game's betting structure. An ante is a forced bet in which all players put an equal amount of money or chips into the pot before the deal begins. Often this is either a single unit a one-value or the smallest value in play or some other small amount; a proportion such as a half or a quarter of the minimum bet is also common.
An ante paid by every player ensures that a player who folds every round will lose money though slowly , thus providing all players with an incentive, however small, to play the hand rather than toss it in when the opening bet reaches them.
Antes are the most common forced bet in draw poker and stud poker but are uncommon in games featuring blind bets see next section. However, some tournament formats of games featuring blinds impose an ante to discourage extremely tight play. Antes encourage players to play more loosely by lowering the cost of staying in the hand calling relative to the current pot size, offering better pot odds.
With antes, more players stay in the hand, which increases pot size and makes for more interesting play. This is considered important to ensure good ratings for televised tournament finals. Most televised high-stakes cash games also use both blinds and antes. Televised cash games usually have one of the players, normally the dealer, pay for everyone to accelerate play. If there are six players for example, the dealer would toss six times the ante into the pot, paying for each person.
In live cash games where the acting dealer changes each turn, it is not uncommon for the players to agree that the dealer or some other position relative to the button provides the ante for each player.
This simplifies betting, but causes minor inequities if other players come and go or miss their turn to deal. During such times, the player can be given a special button indicating the need to pay an ante to the pot known as "posting"; see below upon their return. Some cardrooms eliminate these inequities by always dealing all players into every hand whether they are present or not.
In such cases casino staff or neighboring players under staff supervision will be expected to post antes and fold hands on behalf of absent players as necessary. A blind bet or just blind is a forced bet placed into the pot by one or more players before the deal begins, in a way that simulates bets made during play.
The most common use of blinds as a betting structure calls for two blinds: This two-blind structure, sometimes with antes, is the dominating structure of play for community card poker games such as Texas hold-em.
Sometimes only one blind is used often informally as a "price of winning" the previous hand , and sometimes three are used this is sometimes seen in Omaha. In the case of three blinds usually one quarter, one quarter, and half a normal bet amount , the first blind goes "on the button", that is, is paid by the dealer.
A blind is usually a "live bet"; the amount paid as the blind is considered when figuring the bet to that player the amount needed to call during the first round. However, some situations, such as when a player was absent from the table during a hand in which they should have paid a blind, call for placing a "dead blind"; the blind does not count as a bet.
If there have been no raises when action first gets to the big blind that is, the bet amount facing them is just the amount of the big blind they posted , the big blind has the ability to raise or check.
This right to raise called the option occurs only once. As with any raise, if their raise is now called by every player, the first betting round closes as usual. Similarly to a missed ante, a missed blind due to the player's temporary absence i.
Upon the player's return, they must pay the applicable blind to the pot for the next hand they will participate in. The need for this rule is eliminated in casinos that deal in absent players as described above.
Also the rule is for temporary absences only; if a player leaves the table permanently, special rules govern the assigning of blinds and button see next subsection. In some fixed-limit and spread-limit games, especially if three blinds are used, the big blind amount may be less than the normal betting minimum. Players acting after a sub-minimum blind have the right to call the blind as it is, even though it is less than the amount they would be required to bet, or they may raise the amount needed to bring the current bet up to the normal minimum, called completing the bet.
When one or more players pays the small or big blinds for a hand, then after that hand permanently leaves the game by "busting out" in a tournament or simply calling it a night at a public cardroom , an adjustment is required in the positioning of the blinds and the button. There are three common rule sets to determine this:. In tournaments, the dead button and moving button rules are common replacement players are generally not a part of tournaments.
Online cash games generally use the simplified moving button as other methods are more difficult to codify and can be abused by players constantly entering and leaving.
Casino card rooms where players can come and go can use any of the three rulesets, though moving button is most common.
When a player immediately takes the place of a player who leaves, the player may have the option to either pay the blinds in the leaving player's stead, in which case play continues as if the player never left, or to "sit out" until the button has moved past him, and thus the chair is effectively empty for purposes of the blinds. Many card rooms do not allow new players to sit out as it is highly advantageous for the new player, both to watch one or more hands without obligation to play, and to enter the game in a very "late" position on their first hand they see all other player's actions except the dealer's.
For these reasons, new players must often post a "live" big blind to enter regardless of their position at the table. The normal rules for positioning the blinds do not apply when there are only two players at the table. The player on the button is always due the small blind, and the other player must pay the big blind. The player on the button is therefore the first to act before the flop, but last to act for all remaining betting rounds. A special rule is also applied for placement of the button whenever the size of the table shrinks to two players.
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