Huntsville 10 Old Monrovia Rd. Who in the heck instructed the Superintendent to write the July letter? Not all Osages have a work history or educational background in the oil and gas business. You said and working on it Didn't the Osage buy this land, and the oil rights.
The name Sallisaw was taken from the French word salaison , meaning "salt provisions" in English. The French, who hunted in the area long before the town was founded, called Sallisaw Creek Salaiseau because hunters salted bison meat there. English naturalist Thomas Nuttall recorded the name as Salaiseau , in his journal during his exploration of the area in The city lies within the Green Country region of eastern Oklahoma, known for its rolling green hills.
According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture , nearby geographic features include Wildhorse Mountain to the south, Badger Mountain to the northwest, and Lone Pine Mountain to the northeast. As of the census  of , there were 7, people, 3, households, and 2, families residing in the city. The population density was There were 3, housing units at an average density of The racial makeup of the city was Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.
There were 3, households out of which The average household size was 2. In the city, the population was spread out with The median age was 36 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The local economy was based on cotton farming during the town's early years. During the s, the focus of the economy shifted to the production of lumber, oil and natural gas.
A prison camp was established here during World War II. After the war, a variety of industrial and retail businesses were established. The Sequoyah County Times , founded by Wheeler Mayo in , is called "the largest-circulation, non-metro, non-daily newspaper in Oklahoma.
East Cherokee Avenue is a business loop , with Sallisaw's only mall, the Eastgate Shopping Center, originally a Walmart store, which was moved to W. Ruth Avenue in He sold the track to an investment group in Legalization of gambling on horse racing did not occur until , so the first pari-mutuel race occurred August 30, This caused a short-term boom in track-related businesses. However, the popularity waned and the track struggled financially.
The Cherokee chief, Chad Smith, said that his nation did not plan to resume horse racing at the site, but is considering other options for using the land.
The first recorded contact with Europeans presumed to have been the Lenape was in The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was greeted by local Lenape who came by canoe, after his ship entered what is now called Lower New York Bay.
In the 17th century, Lenape primarily interacted with Dutch traders through the fur trade. The Lenape trapped and traded beaver pelts for European-made goods. At the time of sustained European contact in the s and s the Lenape were a powerful Native American nation who inhabited a region on the mid-Atlantic coast spanning the latitudes of southern Massachusetts to the southern extent of Delaware in what anthropologists call the Northeastern Woodlands.
Based on the historical record of the midth century, it has been estimated that most Lenape polities consisted of several hundred people  but it is conceivable that some had been considerably larger prior to close contact, given the wars between the Susquehannocks and the Iroquois,  both of whom were armed by the Dutch fur traders, while the Lenape were at odds with the Dutch and so lost that particular arms race. During the Beaver Wars in the first half of the 17th century, European colonists were careful to keep firearms from the coastally located Delaware,  while rival Iroquoian peoples such as the Susquehannocks and Confederation of the Iroquois became comparatively well armed.
Iroquoian peoples occasionally fought the Lenape. As the 18th century progressed, many surviving Lenape moved west—into the relatively empty [d] upper Ohio River basin. Smallpox devastated Native American communities even located far from European settlements by the s.
Dutch settlers also founded a colony at present-day Lewes , Delaware on June 3, and named it Zwaanendael Swan Valley.
They defeated the Lenape, and some scholars believe that the Lenape may have become tributaries to the Susquehannock. The Lenape's quick adoption of trade goods, and their need to trap furs to meet high European demand, resulted in their disastrous over-harvesting of the beaver population in the lower Hudson Valley.
With the fur sources exhausted, the Dutch shifted their operations to present-day upstate New York. The Lenape who produced wampum in the vicinity of Manhattan Island temporarily forestalled the negative effects of the decline in trade. The Lenape had a culture in which the clan and family controlled property.
Europeans often tried to contract for land with the tribal chiefs, confusing their culture with that of neighboring tribes such as the Iroquois. The Lenape would petition for grievances on the basis that not all their families had been recognized in the transaction not that they wanted to "share" the land. The Dutch finally established a garrison at Bergen , which allowed settlement west of the Hudson within the province of New Netherland.
This land was purchased from the Lenape after the fact. A peace treaty was negotiated between the newly arriving English and Lenape at what is now known as Penn Treaty Park. In the decades immediately following, some 20, new colonists arrived in the region, putting pressure on Lenape settlements and hunting grounds. Although Penn endeavored to live peaceably with the Lenape and to create a colony that would do the same, he also expected his authority and that of the colonial government to take precedence.
His new colony effectively displaced many Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands. Penn gained a reputation for benevolence and tolerance, but his efforts resulted in more effective colonization of the ancestral Lenape homeland than previous ones. William Penn died in His heirs, John and Thomas Penn, and their agents were running the colony, and had abandoned many of the elder Penn's practices.
Trying to raise money, they contemplated ways to sell Lenape land to colonial settlers. The resulting scheme culminated in the so-called Walking Purchase. In the mids, colonial administrators produced a draft of a land deed dating to the s.
William Penn had approached several leaders of Lenape polities in the lower Delaware to discuss land sales further north. Since the land in question did not belong to their polities, the talks came to nothing. But colonial administrators had prepared the draft that resurfaced in the s. The Penns and their supporters tried to present this draft as a legitimate deed. Lenape leaders in the lower Delaware refused to accept it. According to historian Steven Harper , what followed was a "convoluted sequence of deception, fraud, and extortion orchestrated by the Pennsylvania government that is commonly known as the Walking Purchase.
Some Lenape polities eventually retaliated by attacking Pennsylvania settlements. When they fought British colonial expansion to a standstill at the height of the Seven Years' War , the British government investigated the causes of Lenape resentment.
Johnson had become wealthy as a trader and acquired thousands of acres of land in the Mohawk River Valley from the Iroquois Mohawk of New York. Beginning in the 18th century, the Moravian Church established missions among the Lenape. The Moravians' insistence on Christian Lenapes' abandoning traditional warfare practices alienated mission populations from other Lenape and Native American groups, who revered warriors.
The Moravians accompanied Lenape relocations to Ohio and Canada, continuing their missionary work. The Moravian Lenape who settled permanently in Ontario after the American Revolutionary War were sometimes referred to as " Christian Munsee ", as they mostly spoke the Munsee branch of the Delaware language.
During the French and Indian War , the Lenape initially sided with the French, as they hoped to prevent further British colonial encroachment in their territory. But, such leaders as Teedyuscung in the east and Tamaqua in the vicinity of modern Pittsburgh shifted to building alliances with the English.
After the end of the war, however, Anglo-American settlers continued to kill Lenape, often to such an extent that the historian Amy Schutt writes the dead since the wars outnumbered those killed during the war. Sporadically they continued to raid European-American settlers from far outside the area. In April Teedyuscung was killed when his home was burned.
The settlers had been sponsored by the Susquehanna Company. By then living mostly in the Ohio Country , the Lenape supplied the Continental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for food supplies and security.
After the signing of the Treaty of Easton in , the Lenape were forced to move west out of their native lands into what is today known as Ohio, although not everyone went. During the American Revolution, the Munsee-speaking Lenape then called Delaware bands of the Ohio Country were deeply divided over which side, if any, to take in the conflict.
Their bands lived in numerous villages around their main village of Coshocton. Some Lenape decided to take up arms against the American colonials and moved to the west, closer to Detroit, where they settled on the Scioto and Sandusky rivers. Through this, the Lenape hoped to establish the Ohio Country as a state inhabited exclusively by Native Americans, as part of the new United States. A third group of Lenape, many of them converted Christian Munsees , lived in several mission villages run by Moravians.
They spoke the Munsee branch of Delaware, an Algonquian language. White Eyes , the Lenape chief who had negotiated the treaty, died in Many Lenape at Coshocton eventually joined the war against the Americans.
Surviving residents fled to the north. Colonel Brodhead convinced the militia to leave the Lenape at the Moravian mission villages unmolested, since they were unarmed non-combatants. Brodhead's having to restrain the militia from attacking the Moravian villages was a reflection of the brutal nature of frontier warfare. Violence had escalated on both sides. Relations between regular Continental Army officers from the East such as Brodhead and western militia were frequently strained.
The tensions were worsened by the American government's policy of recruiting some Indian tribes as allies in the war. Western militiamen, many of whom had lost friends and family in Indian raids against settlers' encroachment, blamed all Indians for the acts of some.
During the early s, missionaries, including David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder, arrived in the Ohio Country near the Delaware villages. The Moravian Church sent these men to convert the natives to Christianity. The missionaries established several missions, including Gnadenhutten, Lichtenau, and Schoenbrunn.
The missionaries asked that the natives forsake all of their traditional customs and ways of life. Many Delaware did adopt Christianity, but others refused to do so.
The Delaware became a divided people during the s, including in Killbuck's family. Killbuck resented his grandfather for allowing the Moravians to remain in the Ohio Country. The Moravians believed in pacifism, and Killbuck believed that every convert to the Moravians deprived the Delaware of a warrior to stop further white settlement of their land.
The British paid him one dollar per day. Later Killbuck became a leader in a very dangerous time for the Delaware. The American Revolution had just begun, and Killbuck found his people caught between the English in the West and the Americans in the East. At the war's beginning, Killbuck and many Delaware claimed to be neutral.
In , Killbuck permitted American soldiers to traverse Delaware territory so that the soldiers could attack Fort Detroit. In return, Killbuck requested that the Americans build a fort near the natives' major village of Coshocton to provide the Delaware with protection from English attacks. The Americans agreed and built Fort Laurens, which they garrisoned.
They believed that by their proclamation of , restricting Anglo-American settlement to east of the Appalachian Mountains, that the British would help them preserve a Native American territory. The British planned to attack Fort Laurens in early and demanded that the neutral Delawares formally side with the British.
Killbuck warned the Americans of the planned attack. His actions helped save the fort, but the Americans abandoned it in August The Delaware had lost their protectors and, in theory, faced attacks from the British, their native allies, and the American settlers who flooded into the area in the late s and early s after the war. Facing pressure from the British, the Americans, and even his fellow natives, Killbuck hoped a policy of neutrality would save his people from destruction.
The amateur anthropologist Silas Wood published a book claiming that there were several American Indian tribes that were distinct to Long Island, New York. He collectively called them the Metoac. Modern scientific scholarship has shown that two linguistic groups representing two Algonquian cultural identities lived on the island, not "13 individual tribes" as asserted by Wood. The bands to the west were Lenape. Over a period of years, European settlers progressively crowded the Lenape out of the East Coast and Ohio and pressed them to move further west.
Their descendants live on three Indian reserves in Western Ontario , Canada. The largest reserve is at Moraviantown, Ontario , where the Turtle Phratry settled in following the war.
After , they removed to Wisconsin, under pressure from state and local governments. By the Treaty of St. Mary's, signed October 3, in St. The tribes' cabins and cornfields were spread out along the James River and Wilsons Creek. Many Delaware participated in the exploration of the western United States, working as trappers with the mountain men , and as guides and hunters for wagon trains.
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