Ever since Afanasy Nikitin documented his 15th century voyage to India, Russian Tsars wanted to establish direct trade links with India. The seeker can acquire and track targets in sea states up to 7. It was designed by Igor Seleznyev of Raduga. Once the Shaddock had line of sight to the target, a video datalink was engaged which relayed the seeker image to an operator on the launch vessel. In the late s work began on a replacement missile with either conventional Kh or nuclear Kh warheads  and greater stealth. Navy's newest fast attack submarine, will be commissioned this Saturday at 10 a. March 18, at 3:
It said in a statement carried by Russian news agencies, that the aircraft would conduct training flights over neutral waters before returning to Russia. On 12 October , Tu bombers were involved in the largest Russian strategic bomber exercise since A total of 12 bombers including Tu and Tu aircraft conducted a series of launches of their cruise missiles.
Some bombers launched a full complement of their missiles. It was the first time that a Tu had ever fired a full complement of missiles. The bombers flew along the Russian borders and over neutral waters in the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. Russian media reports in August claimed that only four of the VVS ' sixteen Tu were flight worthy. On 1 November , Aleksandr Golovanov and Aleksandr Novikov went into Colombian airspace on two different occasions without receiving previous clearance from the Colombian Government.
The aircraft were going from Venezuela to Nicaragua and headed for Managua. The Colombian Government issued a letter of protest to the Russian Government following the first violation. On 17 November , Russia started using Tu, Tu , and TuM strategic long-range bombers against targets in Syria , along with Kalibr cruise missiles fired from the Mediterranean. This marked the combat debut of the Tu and Tu From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 3 March Russian's next-generation bomber takes shape". Retrieved 21 November Archived from the original on 15 March Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 3 August Russian strategic nuclear forces. Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 2 May Retrieved 3 May Russia to renew production of its most powerful strategic bomber".
Archived from the original on 1 May Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 27 January BBC, 25 January The Man and His Aircraft illustrated ed. Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 3 September Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 22 January The Great Book of Bombers: Archived from the original on 2 June A Military History Pimlico ed.
John Murray , Random House. Archived from the original on Russia's European Ambitions illustrated ed. Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 14 November El Espectador in Spanish. Cameron to make case for Syria military action as EU troops could be sent to France - latest news". Retrieved 29 October Cooperative project of Fox Web Workshop and city executive committee Dept. The Directory of the World's Weapons.
The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. Jane's All The World's Aircraft — Jane's Information Group, Retrieved from " https: Tupolev aircraft Soviet bomber aircraft — Quadjets Low-wing aircraft Variable-sweep-wing aircraft Aircraft first flown in The missile is available in surface launched and air launched versions AKU adaptor and was publicly canvassed as an option for India's Tu Bear upgrade - it is already deployed on the New Delhi class DDG, reports indicate China ordered in The latest extended range KhUE variant employs an inertial navigation unit, a Glonass receiver, and an active radar seeker with a passive anti-radiation homing capability, the latter with a cited acquisition range of 50 km.
The Glonass receiver provides a secondary capability to attack fixed coastal targets, not unlike later blocks of the AGM Harpoon. The Bal E is the replacement for the Rubezh coastal defence system. Like the Rubezh, the Bal E employs a command and control vehicle equipped with an acquisition and targeting radar, and a telescoping datalink mast to network the TELs. Demonstrator on MAZ [Click here].
The eight mm tubes used for this purpose were built into the sides of the boat, with the recess around the tube doors visible in this image just aft of the fin US DoD. Unlike warship launched Moskit and Yakont variants, the Club is designed for launch from a mm torpedo tube, or a vertical launch tube Refer Military Parade, Exclusives Issue, Kamnev P.
Five distinct variants of this weapon exist. This weapon has a range of nautical miles and is subsonic. Like its subsonic sibling, it approaches from under the radar horizon using the same radar seeker to detect its target. Once locked on, it discards the cruise airframe, fires its rocket motor, and accelerates to Mach 2.
Novator claim the missile follows a zig-zag flightpath to defeat defences. Both the 3ME1 and 3ME are small weapons which are difficult to detect on radar, especially should even basic radar signature reduction techniques be applied to them.
All five weapons in this family share a common launch system and thus any ship, submarine or aircraft equipped for these weapons can carry an arbitrary mix. Press reports indicate that India has fielded this weapon, and there are claims China also ordered in a 'tit-for-tat' deal for planned Kilo SSKs. Soviet cruise missile designers started developing technology after , from much the same baseline as Western designers, and with similar imperatives. These were to provide bombers with standoff weapons allowing them to launch from outside the defensive coverage of an opponent.
By the mid s Soviet imperatives and design strategies began to diverge strongly from their NATO opponents, resulting in a great many designs which had and still have no Western equivalents. A major factor in the divergence between Soviet and Western designs was the Soviet Voenno-Moskiy Flot Navy which in the absence of proper aircraft carriers capable of challenging the US Navy and Royal Navy, invested increasingly in large, fast and highly lethal Anti-Shipping Cruise Missiles ASCM as primary weapon for sea control and maritime interdiction.
The threat of large supersonic cruise missiles drove the development of many Western air defence weapon designs, especially fighters and Surface to Air Missile systems, which might have been very different had it not been for the need to reliably intercept these very fast weapons. The first Soviet cruise missile to enter limited production was the air launched KS-1 Kometa or AS-1 Kennel, which was essentially a derivative of the MiG Fagot airframe, built as an anti-shipping weapon.
Development was initiated in resulting the first missiles entering service during the Korean War period, carried by the Tu-4 Bull, a reverse engineered Boeing B Once the Kometa was near enough to the target, guidance switched to the K-2 semi-active homing seeker in the nose of the missile, relying on illumination from the K-1M radar. The Shaddock and Styx dominated Soviet warship armaments through most of the s. The heavyweight long range Shaddock with a complex guidance system armed submarines and major capital ships, while the short range Styx armed fast missile boats, corvettes, frigates andsome destroyers, with a later adaptation for the 4K51 Rubezh coastal missile battery system.
The Shaddock and Styx shared some basic design features. Both used active radar terminal seekers, large container-like launchers with internal rails, and solid rocket boosters used for launch and then jettisoned. Otherwise they were very different designs. The Styx family of missiles did not evolve significantly in Russia, but was reverse engineered by China and derivatives like the KD remain in production in Numerous other supersonic and subsonic anti-ship cruise missiles appeared between the s and the fall of the Soviet Union, most of which were conceptually modelled on the air breathing Shaddock, or rocket propelled Styx, even though there were unique designs.
It was retired at the end of the Cold War. Almost two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia remains a major player in the global market for cruise missile class weapons, and a major source of advanced cruise missile technology for China's increasingly aggressive industry. The West has been much less active in developing cruise missiles over this period, and at this time has no equivalents to the large supersonic Russian missiles.
As technology has evolved, variants of missiles initially developed in either category have migrated across launch platforms. Variants of the Styx, Sunburn, Stallion and Sizzler are now available in configurations compatible with aircraft, surface ships, submarines and coastal missile batteries.
No less importantly the advent of satellite aided inertial guidance of high accuracy and its migration into anti-shipping missiles to improve effectiveness in littorals has seen a progressive drift away from specialised categories. Many missiles now in production are available in anti-ship, land attack or dual role variants.
Note the exposed active radar seeker and parabolic antenna arrangement Rus MoD. In many respects the Kelt is the equivalent of the Styx, using much the same technology, but with a different airframe design. All variants typically flew a level cruise profile descending into a 25 degree dive to impact. KSR-2M Inertially guided with nuclear warhead. The Kingfish was essentially a scaled down Kitchen, with less range and launch weight, but similar performance and lethality.
It used the Isayev S5. The KSR-5 was carried under one wing on the BD adaptor, the missile being that much heavier than the Kelt that only one could be carried on a typical profile. Post with the retirement of the Badger, the KSR-5 warstock was converted into supersonic targets.
Note the inverted T shaped interferometer array above the glazed bombardier station, and the distinctive white AV-MF camouflage paint. This image is unusual as it shows the maximum loadout of two rounds, typically not carried due to range limitations RuMoD. Raduga KhSM Kent with conformal fuel tanks. A Styx round undergoing maintenance. The warhead bay is open and the cylindrical shaped charge has been removed via Raketnaya Tekhnika. P Styx naval variant.
The Shaddock was a large 10 metre long, 4. This massive ASCM was armed either with a 2, lb class conventional shaped charge 4G48 warhead or a kilotonne nuclear warhead.
A TRD 4D48 turbojet was used, with a pair of 66 klb thrust solid rocket boosters for launch. The lowest altitude midcourse profile reduced range to around 55 nautical miles. The Shaddock used a complex guidance scheme, relying on datalink support during the midcourse profile, with the cruise altitude determined largely by the need to maintain line of sight to the launch vessel. Once the Shaddock had line of sight to the target, a video datalink was engaged which relayed the seeker image to an operator on the launch vessel.
The operator would select the intended target and use the datalink to lock the seeker on that target. The missile would then transition to terminal homing and descend to impact, losing datalink contact as it fell below the radio horizon.
Modes for attacking coastal targets were included. The Kamov KaRTs Hormone B helicopter carried a scaled down variant of the radar and were used to provide organic targeting capability on larger warships which deployed this helicopter. During this period the Soviets developed tactics for saturation ASCM attacks, with multiple submarines or cruisers positioning for launches and using targeting outputs from the Bear D.
The principal drawback of the Shaddock was that it required submarines remained surfaced for up to 30 or more minutes until the Shaddock seekers lit up, a major vulnerability.
The heavy dependence on datalinks also provided opportunities for jamming. TuRTs Bear D targeting platform. The system was introduced during the s. The 4K44 Utyos was a static coastal battery variant of the same system, with relocatable SM two round launchers, and PV missiles. It achieved IOC in The Sepal variants were deployed especially around the Black Sea, with detachments also pre-positioned in Bulgaria, and the system was exported to Syria, according to Russian sources.
The design employed new technology in the P solid propellant sustainer burning NMF-2 or LTS-2KM propellant, with a large four element solid rocket booster pack used for launch. The missile could be launched from a depth of 30 to 40 metres, from a slanted launch tube which was flooded before the missile was fired. The boosters had separate nozzles for underwater propulsion, and atmospheric boost. A 4G66 shaped charge warhead was used, and an active radar or according to some US sources, an anti-radiation terminal seeker.
A nuclear warhead was optional. The Charlie I class boats were decommissioned and scrapped during the early s. The right foreground is occupied with the solid rocket launch booster pack. The P followed the concept of the P, but used a much better active radar seeker and could hit targets at 80 nautical miles.
Russian sources claim that a Drofa adjunct infrared seeker was employed to improve countermeasures resistance during terminal homing, the seeker was installed in a ventral pod. The Charlie II class boats were decommissioned and scrapped during the early s.
The weapon remains deployed on smaller surface combatants. A P was apparently fired successfully at a Georgian naval vessel in P Vulkan being loaded. P Vulkan on display. P Granit with inlet cover installed, but wings and control surfaces deployed. The annular inlet is similar in style to the MiG Fishbed.
This 7 tonne launch weight nautical mile range Mach 2. The missile and fire control system introduced numerous innovations. A digital weapon system fused tracking data from numerous sensors, automatically prioritised targets, and allocated missiles. The design was intended to assign search boxes for the missile seekers to ensure that only the highest priority targets were acquired, and lower priority targets rejected, and to ensure deconfliction between missiles.
The missile airframe was designed for sustained supersonic cruise at low altitudes. The KR turbojet powerplant was initiated once the missile achieved the required airspeed, initial thrust being provided by the jettisonable booster which was ignited in the launch tube. An active radar seeker was carried in the nose, and inertial midcourse guidance employed. A kg conventional or kilotonne nuclear warhead was fitted.
The missile flies a lo-hi-lo profile, at Mach 2. These are flooded prior to launch. The Bal E is intended for rapid deployment, and 'shoot and scoot' operations. Kh Yakhont on Su Flanker D. China is reported to have purchased the baseline 3M for a number of naval vessels.