The anti-GMO campaign’s dangerous war on science

For Straw Hat Luffy has returned This allows more total goods to be produced than if both countries tried to produce everything themselves. This threatens the survival of the company. However the whole battle feels more like an elaborate abstraction of chess ala Morton's Fork. It is implied that he was doing it without even knowing it. Marvel Universe The Ultimates 3 and Ultimatum , where it was revealed that Doctor Doom had manipulated Ultron into murdering Scarlet Witch in order to provoke Magneto into declaring war on mankind.

Navigation menu

hosted by Brian Mowll, CDE, MLDE, IFMCP

This has to be the longest title of any post, but it covers the diverse functions of the identity-by-state method of analyzing high-density SNP data. While many methods for determining genomic similarity rely on knowledge of family tree structure identity by descent methods , the method described by Roberson and Pevsner compares SNPs based on identity by state, which allows them to compare any two individuals without knowledge of the family structure.

Identity by State examines pairs of SNPs between two individuals and puts them into one of three categories:. Both individuals have the same genotype call Ex. Only one call is shared between both individuals Ex.

For individual SNPs, this type of analysis really does not provide any extra information. The real advantage is gained when high-density SNP information is taken for the whole genome 23andMe customers have this, and many other Illumina and Affymetrix platforms cover the whole genome. In the paper, identical Identity by State IBS is referred to as situation 2; one-allele shared is situation 1; and no alleles shared is situation 0. Here are a few images from the paper.

The data does not seem to have any rhyme to it. This indicates that these two individuals share one haplotype i n that region. The chart to the left summarizes how to interpret what is shared given the IBS calls in a region. Roberson and Pevsner continue to show what type of IBS call distributions are made by various combinations of relations. The situation when the siblings are compared is a bit more complicated, but also more informative!

Transitions from regions with 2,1,0 to 2,1 to 1 and vice versa indicate a meiotic recombination event had occurred. It has been shown pretty well that IBS analysis can be used to look at recombination events and allele sharing between siblings. This is extremely useful. However, IBS Analysis can apply towards a few other items:. The program which I wrote to create the above output colors the chromosome gray in regions with no SNP information, black in regions with no allele sharing, red in regions where one allele is shared, and green in regions where both alleles are shared.

Two completely unrelated individuals would have completely black chromosomes. The picture above is of unrelated individuals with a more recent common ancestor, likely due to the fact that they come from the same population. Again, I got bored around 3 am one night and decided to write a program.

If you wish this program or a version of it for commercial use, you must contact me. Genome Relator is the program I have for you. It does two things:. To use this program, simply extract the files to a folder, and place both genomes you would like to compare named file1. Then just double click the proper JAR file. One would have to separate a pup and see how they respond to as loud noise. It most certainly could be done. I only help rescue them.

Nothing replaces the certainty of a BAER test, although breeders should delay it as long as possible as the degeneration and hair cell death usually occur two to four weeks after birth, but not always.

I would love to invite you to meet my always smiling Dalmatian girl who is the most stubborn and sturdy dog you could come across.

As you will be aware, stubborn and sturdy does not go hand in hand with submissive behavior. Like Border Collies Dalmatians are not for everyone since they are intelligent and active.

Also if you do your research properly, then you will find out that the Dalmatians base color is not white! Furthermore have Dalmatian breeders been among the first who started to BAER test their breeding stock and made the issue a very public one. They also extended their efforts in working on any issues within the breed to introduce the Dalmatian back cross LUA dogs into their breeding scheme and are actively seeking to better the breed even further.

The reputation of the Dalmatian in the US is not always great but in Europe they are well known for their suitability as family pets particularly when children are present in the household. They also have jobs and work in search and rescue. In Australia some Dalmatian families are used as hearing for the deaf dogs how would all this be possible if the breed was as submissive as you described it? Maybe your opinion cannot be influenced but I am glad that you express yourself in such an extreme manner that intelligent people will be able to read these comments and walk away without being influenced by your comments.

Have a nice day, Stephanie from Europe who has been judging Dalmatians in multiple countries. The predominantly white Dalmatians do not produce melanin at all in their white patches. There are no working melanocytes in their white.

Not even the LUA Dals have made any improvement on deafness. OK I did the Google test. Particular in Germany you will also find pet buyers complain about skin issues this did not come up on Google but since I am very established in the scene I am aware of what is being said and what comes up on Discussion boards.

You will find very, very few complaints about bad temperament. The only web searches that come up with aggressive and co are. Now I only did you a favor by entering this into Google and since I was curious about the outcome BUT I am not in the habit of lying to others or myself and have chosen the Dalmatian as my breed for their specific temperament. I have worked with horses and their owners as a freelance rider and instructor for many years and I need a dog that could keep up with my active outdoor life-style as well as me not having to live in fear when I took my dogs to the local indoor school where there are many strangers, children and dogs.

Matters can always be improved and if they do not get improved it still requires passion and knowledge to keep any dog breed balanced. I have only lived in the US for one year and have come across many pet owners that tell me that Dalmatians are crazy. I have only had direct contact with four US breeders and ALL their dogs and I saw the same relaxed, clowns that I got to know in Europe so you tell me if this is a location issue or if it is the bad work of some?

Trust me if the Dalmatian was the way you described it, I would have changed the breed a long time ago. No further replies to this? I did forget to ask you when you will start breeding Border Collies that are solid in color since they also suffer from blue eyes linked to deafness and the absence of pigment and since they also often come deaf. Baer hearing testing DOES lead to acurate statistics as well as providing breeders with information on each and every litter so they can make wiser choices in the future to consistanly work on improving the breed.

You mention in another comment that 38 years should have been enough to fix the HUA problem. This statement alone shows how much you really know about genetics and breeding.

Are you serious when you state that you want a breed to be related to ONE dog within that time period? Do me a favor and concentrate on your own breed it appears that you have a lot more homework to do. Start off by working on the submissive posture the BC displays and if you are not seeing it in US BC then please travel to BC country and go out in the countryside where every farmer owns one that then attacks all by-passers to the farm since they have been bred for a long time to be ankle nippers their job on those farms.

Now again to the Dalmatians coat color. They do not have a white coat base color they are either black or liver. Another gene is then responsible to cover up the color and even more genes are involved to punch holes in the white layer to let out the spots that are taken from the colored base color of the Dalmatian.

If you also look at Dalmatians properly then you will find that they have pigmented eyes, lips, noses, paw pads and only IF a white window falls in the inner year will the hearing be impaired which is the same in many other breeds and rather predominant in your chosen breed.

Now this is my final answer. You had the opportunity to exchange information with some very experienced breeders here. Something that I always value particularly when exchanging information with knowledgeable breeders from other breeds. You do not have an interest in broadening your horizons but something in life made you rather bitter and therefore you do not spoil us with new knowledge but use the information that you have in an incredibly negative manner.

First off, you need to stop applying European standards to the blog. He is not attacking FCI Dalmatians at all. The statistics he cite for Dalmatians are the ones for North America. In Canada and United States we do. Much of what Christopher writes for his blog is not an assault on the European fancys. It is an assault on the American fanciers. Much of the practices dog-breeders carry out have been in direct opposition to animal-welfare which fuels the engine for radical organizations such as PeTA.

As a hobby-breeder, Christopher is more impacted by what other breeders do with their dogs than he is impacted by some farm-bred Border Collie no one gives a shit about. Instead of trying to defend the Dalmatians as a European, maybe you should try castrating the Americans by showing what Europeans are doing better than the Americans?

I however do not see Christopher intention on improving knowledge and moving matters forward, instead he is attacking a breed that is among the healthiest in the world of dog breeding. How is THAT helpful to the cause?

Since then, the North American kennel clubs have responded poorly to reforms. Instead, they participate in denial and data cover-ups. The European kennel clubs, on the other hand, took the issue by the horns and wrangled.

You see the Kennel Club of United Kingdom introducing extensive reforms. Not only that the FCI changed a few rules over the years. So as the result, Europeans have a very strong animal welfare movement. However, here we have whackjobs who advocate whales and primates should have the right to votes by granting them personhood. The Animal Right also equate pet-ownership to slavery and meat-consumption to genocides.

Totally different political climate. If I recall correctly, Europe underwent a few reforms in the s based on the movement in the s and s— the biggest one being the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals , which has the potential to hold dog-breeders responsible for their actions. Instead, our reforms are bordering on complete bans on breeding. If the American Dalmatian breeders truly want to preserve their rights to breed, just as Christopher is fighting for his right to breed Border Collies, they should be working toward lowering the statistics just as the Europeans have already done.

In the long run, everyone wins because of whistle-blowers. Do they all have the same Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking genes?

FCI Dalmatians are thus genetically just as susceptible to all the issues I raised here. As for their reputation and popularity in FCI countries, that might be something interesting to look at. Of course, by genetic design, the lack of melanin will lead to increase in incidences of disorders.

However breeders should be asking themselves: The vast majority of them are still homozygous for the disease allele. OMFG, what drugs are you on? At a biological level, there are just hairs. And those hairs have different amounts of two color producing chemicals pheomelanin and eumelanin.

ALL dog colors come from differing amounts of those two chemicals in the hairs. The effect of the white is to kill the melanocytes in the skin and thus there is no melanin in the hair. This is the only effect that matters. No, Dalmatians are not albinos. But functionally the white patches are exactly the same.

This is no great mystery. I do not have a faulty understanding of the phenotype nor am I misrepresenting it. And yes, Border Collies do have alleles that create white and several of those alleles are also associated with deafness. Merle, Piebald, and possibly even Irish spotting, although more robust testing with DNA needs to be done to decipher which alleles lead to what rates of deafness.

On the same drugs as George M. Please feel free to read this article in particular the part on Genetics of deafness: There is no need to be petty because I am loosing an argument.

I do not feel that I am losing at all. The reason that my latest posts came out more petty than the first is the fact that Christopher has been rather petty himself. Now forgive me, I am not perfect and may respond in a similar manner as I have been addressed. So where is the difference between the two statements?

You also filter and hear what you can use to your advantage but you are not hearing what I am saying at all. I stated before that I have judged Dalmatians in multiple countries and spend much time among them, their breeders and owners and I have yet to come across one that is going to nip me. How does that fit in with the multiple occasions that you point out to us that it does not matter if we happen to own some well bred once that have a nice disposition?

You write about the submissive behaviors and body language of the Dalmatian and I ask you how you feel about the very submissive body language of the border collie.

I have mentioned it before, I am not one of those breeders that are paranoid about the press, the opposite is the fact and since we live in the country of the free, I guess I am also allowed to be of the opinion that Christopher has a rather strange way of wanting to achieve his mission. Linked to him twice in this article. Congenital deafness in dogs and cats is primarily of the hereditary sensorineural form associated with white pigmentation genes, although acquired forms of deafness are possible.

Highest prevalence is seen in white cats, especially those with blue eyes, and the Dalmatian, with many other dog breeds affected to some extent. This deafness results from degeneration of the cochlear blood supply at age 3 to 4 weeks, presumably resulting from suppression of melanocytes by the white cat or merle or piebald dog genes. The breeds for which the prevalence is known to be high are highlighted in bold, although similar high rates may occur in other breeds that do not yet routinely receive testing.

Prevalence rates measured by the author are shown in Table 2 for the canine breeds most often presented for hearing testing services. An example is the Dalmatian, all of which are breed are homozygous for the extreme piebald gene. The underlying coat color of black dominant or liver recessive is covered with white by the extreme piebald gene, and spots are produced through the white by the dominant ticking gene.

The lightness or heaviness of the spotting is thus controlled by the ticking gene and not the extreme piebald gene, and it is not a factor in the prevalence of deafness.

Breeding of bilaterally hearing parents routinely produces deaf offspring; thus, the mechanism is not simple dominant. Breeding of two bilaterally deaf parents produces both deaf and hearing offspring; the latter would not occur if the defect were simple recessive and both parents were homozygous.

There is no evidence for X-linked or mitochondrial hereditary mechanisms. As a consequence, inheritance of deafness associated with the piebald genes must be polygenic or must involve incomplete expression or penetrance, or some combination.

Molecular genetic studies of deafness disorders in humans and mice suggest that this deafness may result from a defect in a gene responsible for regulation of the piebald genes such as one of the homeobox class of genes. Evidence for this comes from further findings in Dalmatians.

A patch in Dalmatians is a large black or liver area present at birth when the puppy is otherwise solid white; patches are disallowed in the Dalmatian breed standard. The patch appears to result from weak expression of the extreme piebald gene, resulting in a failure to cover the underlying coat color; patched Dalmatians are statistically less likely to be deaf than unpatched animals.

Blue-eyed Dalmatians are statistically more likely to be deaf than brown-eyed animals. You obviously have not read Strain thoroughly otherwise you would have known that the Dalmatians base color is NOT white.

Instead you performed your usual trick and only picked from the article what you found useful fuel for your arguments sake. If this is how you conduct your research sloppy then you failed your mission again before you started it.

WTF are you still blabbing about? You are amazingly dense. Dalmatians are predominantly white. This is all that matters. There are not black hairs hiding under those white ones. Dalmatians are profoundly deaf. More than almost any other breed, if not the most deaf breed. In that strain summary, he shows 48 tested Catahoula Leopard Dogs with Or they might be worse if the sample was representative.

And again, we have profoundly white dogs. Merle, Double Merle, Piebalds, etc. I never said that every single Dalmatian has urate stone disease.

And I never said every single Dalmatian is screwed in the head. They all just have the genetic predisposition. And this is true. Extreme piebald causes deafness. Extreme piebald causes mental issues. ALL Dalmatians are extreme piebald. All HUA Dals are also homozygous for the gene that causes urate stone disease.

Michael Fox, a veterinarian and animal psychologist, and others have speculated to be a forerunner of laughter. I agree that it is a submissive behavior. However, every smiler I had, used it to their advantage. My dogs know that I am the leader and it is natural for a canine to show submission to the leader of the pack. I have never had a problem with aggression with any of my smilers.

Has it been clear sailing with Dallies from day one? The Dals that have been abused the absolute worst are the ones that find their way to my house. No animal or human could have come through what they did without scars. These Dalmatians were shot, whipped, beaten with baseball bats, starved and neglected, yet 99 percent of them left their pasts behind and were trustful and loving.

That is a testament to their good personalities. Only one that I have has been a problem, mostly with other dogs. She is completely and utterly obedient with me, but I will never trust her with other dogs and I am extremely cautious with people and always err on the side of caution.

Her abuser went to jail for the atrocities she suffered. And, by the way, she is the one who grins like the wolves it looks like a dolphin , but never, ever gives a smarl.

So I am no longer on drugs? Well, that is that out of the way then. Sorry I do not find your cause believable at all. Since you appear to be in this game to upset instead of trying to mentor and explaining yourself.

Stil in this whole discussion you are making a point of dragging one breed through the dirt. So MAYBE if you could come up with some realistic and knowledgeable suggestions for us instead of slandering individuals you would actually make a difference and not just create opposition.

I believe the pointer back cross was approved a few years ago. Mona Karel recently posted.. I have had some come this way that I suspected were well bred, that had been plucked, starving, off the street.

I corrected your misstatement, in part because allowing in the back cross dogs over traditionalists objections was a forward step for AKC. Not just for the AKC. If I had Dals, I for one would scratch my dogs from every show one of the Dalmointers was entered in, I would not buy from any of the Dalmointer breeders or anyone associated with them, I would not give them or anyone associated with them stud service, or take stud service from them or anyone associated with them, I also would not sell to them or anyone associated with them as I would not want my lines used to make Dalmointers.

Trolls themselves are emotionally-immature users who thrive in any environment where they are allowed to make public comments, like blog sites, news sites, discussion forums, and game chat. I even experienced see and read DVM troll. They really become intimidated with their lack of knowledge of genetics and new scientific findings.

More on Trolling and the Truths of Internet Trolls. Kudos Why love this Blog can actually learn most of the time from individuals not the same old excuses, denials and ignorance. Exactly, it has nothing to do with this post. Because irresponsible owners would only be throwing gas on the fire, meaning that if Dalmatians have such a bad temperament, how come someone can torture them and starve them, yet after being rescued, they are loving and gasp!

I said very clearly, they all have the genetic disposition toward temperament issues, blindness, and uric acidosis. Never claimed it was. ALL Dalmatians have the genes for uric acidosis but not every Dalmatian will get clinical level symptoms. Uric acidosis should have been solved by now. I am not sure which Dalmatians you have come across but I keep repeating — I do not know many and some exist in every breed that have temperament issues.

Top this with the fact that deafness does not hurt and the fact that many European breeders make sure that their fully deaf puppies are actually homed and not put to sleep then deafness looks much better than HD or one of the many other painful diseases that other breeds battle.

All this said it certainly does not hurt to carry on the good work of working on even better statistics. How would you avoid a genetic bottleneck if any other practice was chosen?

In the US the Dalmatian has an average live expectancy span of 12 years, in my home country in Europe the breed average life span is even at Do they still look so unhealthy to you? Trust me I can be very critical when it comes to Dalmatian breeding and dog breeding in general. Sometimes it is great if somebody kicks up a stink and stirs matters up a little so one does not become to comfortable and the dust on some old habits is lifted.

Now it appears that you have caused a stir here…….. The bigger issue is that it took almost 40 years 38 by my count , and a ground breaking documentary which featured the Dalmatian problem to allow this. It should be routine for anyone to bring in new blood to their breeds for whatever reason they want with appendix registries. It would be genetically superior if there were more outcrosses than just the one being done. Why create what is essentially a type of popular sire effect with the LUAs?

ALL Dalmatians have the white coat. The deafness figures come straight from the studies that are linked. Lifespan has too many variables. An online source will tell you My Dals from my overly careful breeder lived to around I had one make it to Now, Christopher, I have to ask if you have ever owned a special needs dog?

I mean blind, deaf, seizures, etc.? So for your dog to live to be 17, several dogs must died before reaching years old for the statistics to be demostrated an average mean of Their ages at passing were That averages to It is entirely possible for a population to have high infant mortality rate and have an average age over 10; providing the survivors are long-lived.

Most breeds fall within that average. It only took 38 years! They should be praised for all that foresight. I mean heck, the first cell phone in weighted 2 pounds and worked in all of one location on the globe.

Richard Nixon was President. Soylent Green was in theatres. Not exactly cutting edge, not very encouraging that it took so long to allow the dogs in, and many of the arguments made against the LUA Dals were wicked and ignorant. Curious that since doing Dalmatian Rescue in New Mexico since and having nearly Dallies live in my home, on my couchand lap, for at least three months for each dog, that I have had exactly NO bad temperaments.

Maybe you are refering to those crazy New York Raging Damatians. Wow, I must be really, really lucky. That is because there is no such thing in the Dalmatian lines. Then you show a picture of a Dalmatian smiling and my two forever Dals and my three foster Dals ALL smile and allow the reading public to think it is snarling, Really classy move, Christopher.

I had my dogs before I had my kids. When the kids came, they were not allowed to stick fingers in dog noses and pull ears. They had to be respectful; I just drummed it into theirs heads. Fast forward to today, when kids are climbing on restaurant tables and screaming through stores.

My kids, nor I ,when I was young, would have been allowed to act like that. If one of my kids had hurt the dog and gotten nipped, I would have blamed the kid.

No dog is a nanny. No dog understands the complexity of that task and NO human should turn over their parenting responsibility to a dog. I never said anything about a nanny dog. I am just saying that if a child causes physical pain to a dog—any dog—then who is to blame when the dog finally nips the kid?

Individuals who rescued Dalmatians were not and did not state that the breed was shitty or that they were not nice dogs and I challenge you to put any rescue site up that states just exactly what you just stated.

The rescue people were protesting Dalmatians because they felt the film resulted in a number of un-reputably breeders coming out of the woodwork to capitalize on the profits of this film. It resulted in many individuals running out and purchasing the breed because the puppies were cute and without doing any research.

Individuals who failed to read and understand the history of this breed and what purpose they had, which was to run with a coach and horses and were also used to guard the coach and the horses, ended up with a pet that needed to be taken care of. Dalmatians have an very intelligent nature and extremely high energy level which require both physical and mental stimulation. Thus people who were not willing to put in the time to exercise and stimulate the breed ended up having problems.

But with any animal you see this to be the case. I believe shelters are filled with rabbits shortly after Easter since parents think it is cute to buy a rabbit for a child on Easter, that is until they have to take care of it. Oh but they are cute!

There is a study on this and you might want to read that study which states increased popularity is sometimes followed by increases in bite reports. Suggest you read this article along with their references. Every breed at one point has bitten a child, hell I was bitten in the ear by a friggin Dachsund when I was a child! If a child corners a dog in any circumstance that dog is going to snap at them and that is the major reason behind dog bites.

Dalmatians love playing with children because like them, children are high energy. In the movie, the Dalmatians are cute and fun. But at home, they shed, tend to snap and sometimes bite, and often do not particularly like children, former owners complain.

Christopher Posted June 3, at 7: Did you read the last three words? The shelters stated what I did, the people who took the dogs were not willing to spend the time to train, give them the exercise they need and take care of them.

A breed that needs exercise and mental stimulation. They also addressed bad breeders. Again, you will be hard press to find ANY shelter or rescue place that states this breed your comments quoted above.

Good luck, because like I stated before you will not find one. Hehehehe, is this really a hard concept? Who are the former owners complaining to?

And what are the shelter and rescue people doing going to the movie theatres to hand out pamphplets warning people to NOT get Dalmatians? That sounds ridiculous, because it is. Goldens are wonderful pets and great with children. I have an entire post on that. And I said you were hard press to find any shelter that stated this. You posted what owners were telling shelters.

I would suspect if a movie was made called Golden Retrievers following a popular childrens book etc, the same events would have occured. Again, it goes back to owners not wanting to spend the time to train an animal. In fact the number one reason people bring their dog to the shelter is they get a dog without realizing how much training is involved.

And you were given a link to a study done on dog bites and it states very clearly that reports of Dalmatians biting during this time period were just not there. Since you brought up Golden Retrievers. Which by the way are worse than Dalmatian on biting…. Dog attack deaths and maimings, U. Dalmatian Attacks doing bodily harm: Golden Retriever Attacks doing bodily harm: Look down the list, heck Poodles are worse than Dals!

You might be very surprised at some of the breeds listed who are far worse than any Dal. I will close the argument by saying, if one is going to blog about any breed and bad mouth its behavior, they first should spend time with that breed. And evidently based on your comments you have not spent a minute with a dalmatian. If you would have before writing your article, what you stated about their behavior would have been left out. I would say the same with those that wrote the blogs on Golden Retrievers or any other breed.

Because in the end how a breed, any breed acts is based solely on the individual owner of that breed and whether or not they are responsible owners who care for the breeds individual needs.

You need to look at attack rates on a per population basis. You stats show golden retrievers to have about 3. Same year Dalmatians had 3, But Dalmatians dropped off to a fraction of that in only a few years:. The newer version of Homeward Bound was released twice in and Not to mention other movies like Fluke and Air Bud with countless of releases and spinoffs.

The Dalmatians TV spin-offs were never really popular to begin with. And their claim to fame outside the movie theatre is what? Lou-Dog owned by Bradley Nowell from the band Sublime? The dog is not a good pet for most family situations. Try reading about Dalmatian temperament in the many online guides to owning different breeds or better still try owning one before you criticise. My Dalmatian avoided conflict at all costs and was a wonderful loving, caring and sensitive dog.

He also smiled by baring his teeth, but the tail never stopped wagging. People need to stop saying things like that. There is no way you had that many and never experienced any issues. I have German Shepherds and am involved in rescue.

I have had dogs with bad temperaments, HD, blind, deaf etc. If I posted I had never had a problem I would be lying. I am a 4th generation dog person and actively show my dogs. Every breed has problems but what exactly are breeders doing??

I think it depends on the breed and the breeder. A lot of us are scrambling to hold the line, breeding the healthiest dogs we can, retaining breed function, and placing our puppies with the best homes possible. Many of whom, sadly, do breed rescue. I even said maybe you can say something to rekindle my love for them? In the same vain, being such a proficient debater, you should be prepared to analyse and critique other people without relying on sensationalist statements that are based on no fact.

Why would you bring that up? Is it a different rule for you because you are the God of all opinion? And what have I said that you determine to be a lie please???

Dalmatians are no more artificial than any other breed of dog. Are you really saying that deaf people are not healthy?? Most of your comments are just spiteful, reactive and sensationalist. You should become a tabloid journalist!

Here is one of my Dals, as you can see easily trained to a high level of obedience and passes his Temperament Test by The American Temperament Teat Society. My Dal has the appropriate temperament for his breed, social and outgoing to friendly strangers, and protective and aggressive to threats. Wow, so you can bite me, lol. And no, as Prince Charming I will not be touching your nasty feet and allowing you to try on the glass slipper.

It has been shown in the past the American Temperament Test has no scientific foundation behind it and there is no measure of hereditary traits been drawn from it. Why is regarded as being worthless? Because a dog can be trained to pass the temperament test. The only temperament test which has been proven by a genetics research institute Genetica is the one developed by the SBK:. Why must you constantly ask for better arguments and proof but then keep using the same exact wording time after time?

And the CHIC list you are complaining about? Those are proven genetic disease in dogs and to get the number your dog has to be clear of all those diseases.

Do you do the required testing of your dogs before you breed them? Do you know the MDR1 statuses on your dogs? Please…I would rather know at 7 weeks a Dal is deaf and euthanize it than place a breed with known eye disease problems or epilepsy or HD that costs the family huge amounts of emotional and financial hardship before having to be put down.

Its called being a responsible person. I simply own two. The other reality is you are a cyber bully who feels the needs to use name calling to get your point across. And that just makes your arguements come across as untrue based on your tone. Perhaps you should act like the man you claim you are and not the child that is portrayed in your posts.

Since when did CHIC become an authority on dog health? How pathetic is that? Why does it matter that there are problems in all breeds. That in no way exonerates Dalmatians and their breeders one bit!

They are still a breed built around a genetic disease. Do if I paid someone to give me a Dalmatian, suddenly they would magically be different dogs. They would magically not have HUA genes saturated in the pedigreed dogs any more? Border Collies affected with hip dysplasia: Do you hate Dals because one bit you or something? I hope so because you deserve it. Do you know that Dalmatians are a guarding breed?

They are supposed to have appropriate aggression. Im not trying to make any breed look better, I like border collies, first dog was a BC mix. Additionally, Portable Ops can count - the remaining survivors of the San Hieronymo incident later become part of Big Boss's mercenaries. Meryl who doesn't wear a bra and EVA. Possibly borrowed from Policenauts , in which you could jiggle almost every female character's breast. Except, ironically unless under special circumstances , Meryl's.

It seems no one in this series can commit to a plan unless it's as labyrinthine as possible. The series if you don't count Rising takes place over a fifty year period with two of the three actually four playable characters being a father and son. All of Big Boss' children are skilled soldiers. Not surprising, since they're clones and were in fact raised specifically to be perfect soldiers. Even more egregious is Otacon and his father, both genius robotics engineers with similar personalities, who wind up unwittingly creating walking nuclear death tanks and then actively work to stop their work from being used.

Until it's revealed that Huey was actually an asshole. Good Smoking, Evil Smoking: Series protagonist Solid Snake smokes cigarettes. Original Big Bad Big Boss, on the other hand, loves cigars. They succeeded, and ended up with three guys who do not enjoy getting dicked around at all. There's also the first incarnation of Big Boss's Outer Heaven, Militares Sans Frontiers a take off Medicines Sans Frontiers, which they had to throw a legal disclaimer saying the two weren't related.

Most of the games feature a de facto villain while playing with moral ambiguity as a thematic device. That is until MGS4 which is a full on Grey and Gray Morality story which also retcons the series conflict into one as well.

A few of these across the series, but again, the whole thing is more of a Grey and Gray Morality situation. Cipher, led by Zero for Metal Gear Solid: Sons of Liberty and Metal Gear Solid 4: Ironically, the Big Bads in the Solid Snake games are battling the Patriots themselves, though for different reasons. In MGS4 , you can knock out a male enemy by crushing their balls.

Meryl's Desert Eagle in MGS, which she claims to have used since she was a child ; in MGS4 she has both that and a long-barrel version with an attached scope. There's also the Patriot in MGS3, essentially a sawn-off version of an M16 prototype that only The Boss can effectively fire one-handed.

And Gray Fox has a plasma cannon which replaces his right hand when he needs it. It's like the regular Extreme difficulty, with the added stipulation that triggering an Alarm phase ends the game immediately.

He Knows About Timed Hits: Made into an art form. In MGS2 , when bleeding, Raiden can stop the bleeding if he stays still because of the fast acting nanomachines. Averted and commented on by everyone, especially Solid Snake, who mocks the idea. R , Senator Armstrong just punches and kicks you like a ball in the first and second fights, until you get Murasama HF Blade and kicks his butt. Fortune in MGS2 is truly a hopeless fight; all you can do is dodge her shots until events force her to leave.

Naomi, Rosemary, Para-Medic and Elise. Otacon also becomes significantly more attractive with each game, ironic as Snake becomes older and uglier with each game. The franchise has this as the main theme. The plots usually revolve around the protagonist and their direct opposition being manipulated by politicians, conspiracies, and other forces, and being treated as expendable tools with no goal or aspirations of their own.

You can carry about fifty weapons in MGS4 , but only five at a time that you can wield in your menu. You can also carry an oil drum. Portable Ops and Peace Walker downplay this trope heavily. Portable Ops allows you to carry four items only, regardless of type. Peace Walker , on the other hand, will allow you to carry between one and three primary weapons, depending on which outfit you're wearing, and a couple of secondary weapons as well as a limited number of items.

Averted in The Phantom Pain. Gray Fox has absolutely nothing to live for except one last battle with Solid Snake. Vamp's nanomachine-enhanced Healing Factor prevents him from committing suicide. Fortune cannot be hit with bullets, and any grenades thrown in her vicinity end up being duds due to the top secret electromagnetic weapon developed by the Patriots that she is unknowingly carrying , but she lost everything after the tanker incident so this is actually a curse.

All three are looking for a Worthy Opponent to finish them off. The Boss was a special case, as the Philosophers ordered her to die at Naked Snake's hands for the sake of a cover-up.

She couldn't commit suicide, and she couldn't tell Snake what was going on. The fact that nuclear war would likely result if she stayed alive was also a factor. Even Snake fits this during MGS4 , as he cannot die until he completes his mission. Guess whose cell he had to watch over in Metal Gear Solid 3: Despite having the situation explained to them every 3.

Though considering how many plot twists get revealed in each cutscene and the Mind Screw nature of MGS2 , it could just be an effort to identify with the players who are probably just as confused. Johnny Akiba in MGS4 also qualifies. The Emmerich family are never told that they are working on a machine that is going to be used to destroy the world because they would not help.

Thankfully they are incredibly gullible. I Have Many Names: Many characters, especially those appearing in multiple different games, have several identities they are referred to as. Deconstructed with Solid Snake, and even more savagely deconstructed with Raiden. The Metal Gears themselves. Subverted and played straight. Shooting a guard with no vest or helmet in the chest, butt, or head does this; but it'll take anywhere from thirty seconds to five minutes, depending on the difficulty level, to knock out a guard in any other zone.

For realism when sniping, if you don't take a relaxant medicine the character's hand shiver or just messing with the player's mind Fission Mailed , the Psycho Mantis battle. Snake Eater had "Snake v. Monkey", a crossover with Ape Escape. There was also Snake's inclusion in Super Smash Bros. I'm going to swat down a couple of bothersome flies.

I've got to go and swat a noisy fly. At least one per game. Kill It with Fire: Knight In Sour Armor: Solid Snake, Big Boss, and the Boss are all this. Never was, and never will be. I'm just an old killer, hired to do some wet-work. Starts off mild in the early games. Taken to an art form. And when Liquid's arm possesses Ocelot , the hamminess can barely be described.

Ocelot even calls Fortune out on this at the end of 2, before killing her "You were hamming it up as the tragic heroine, thanks to the script the Patriots wrote for you. Since you don't use iron sights in MGS2 , it's the only way to aim; and in MGS4 , you'll need it if you use third person a lot. Despite being prequels, both Peace Walker and MGSV end with timelines that spoil all of the previous games to a degree, with the kicker being that they're both on unique formats.

Hope you don't mind having many of its plot points spoiled for you. Somewhat subverted; the mask's lips don't move, Snake's facial structure is roughly recognizable beneath the mask, and the FaceCamo used by Laughing Octopus and Snake is MUCH more advanced than current technology. MGS3 was the first game to establish the fact that Big Boss used the Snake codename before his clones were conceived, essentially turning Solid Snake into this not so much for Liquid and Solidus though, who are never actually addressed as Snake by anyone.

TPP takes this idea further by making the main character into a body double of Big Boss, making him the third playable Snake in the mainline series. Freedom is pretty much the entire point for "followers" of Big Boss' supposed ideology. The first one represented conversations on the radio by showing a portrait of each character in the conversation, with Mouth Flaps when they spoke. The most expressive they got were the occasional change in expression, such as Mei Ling sticking her tongue out at the player, or Otacon jamming his face up against the camera to warn Snake about stealthed assassins.

MGS3 dealt with the first problem by representing the characters with still pictures, as it took place in the s, when two-way video-phone devices would be nonexistent. MGS4 avoided it entirely by showing full videos of the character Snake was speaking to, although Snake only has two main contacts in that game Otacon and Rosemary. Revengance plays with it, for some reason. The required calls are done in a Gears of War or Batman: Arkham Asylum style, with Raiden putting two fingers up to his ear and walking really slowly, although there's a floating full model portrait, and the optional ones have the same thing, but done in the classic style.

However, the mouth flaps are still extremely, extremely off, even though it seems out of place in a modern game. It's possible that the supposedly "off" mouth flaps are actually synced to the Japanese dialogue. D2, Fatman in MGS2. Each of the numbered games since MGS2 has had at least one character whose age is in triple digits: This is never really gone into in the dub since English doesn't do that , so it just seems to be meaningless babble.

Some could say that it worked out fine, while in English you can say "La Li Lu Le Lo", anyone who says that in the middle of a conversation for no reason seems silly and out of place. This makes it difficult to take their opinion seriously, thus getting the characters and the viewer to wonder about the legitimacy of their claims as well as the declaration of the existence of the patriots Luke, I Am Your Father: The various incarnations of the Cyborg Ninja, none of them Japanese.

Revengeance even opens with Raiden quoting from the code of Samurai, whom he obviously esteems. In Sons of Liberty , the Russian soldiers eventually trade in their camo for futuristic "Tengu" uniforms, complete with naruto sandals and blades. All the Snakes qualify to some extent, but Liquid takes the cake. He survives a helicopter crash, a large explosion, a high fall and several gunshot wounds before finally succumbing to the FOXDIE. Even then, he is able to possess Ocelot through his arm except he isn't possessing Ocelot, it's a trick.

Raiden, too, especially once he's a cyborg ninja. In fact, pretty much anyone in combat in this franchise. Quite literally with some bosses. Even though some abilities of characters seem downright magical, mostly they are given a scientific explanation. For example, Vamp's regeneration and Screaming Mantis' mind control both take advantage of nanotechnology.

There are a few notable aversions in the series as well - the source of Psycho Mantis' or The Sorrows powers are never explored and they appear to be genuinely paranormal. However, the series is infamous for its love of complexity. Don't expect any single explanation to cover a character. In the case of Vamp, while he used nanomachine regeneration, his other abilities are never given solid explanation, and at least one character turned out to have genuine powers separate from the technology that was assumed to provide them.

Basically, don't assume that the wizard has been done in until you see the body. The Man Behind the Man: Like you wouldn't believe, though the Patriots could be more accurately described as the computer behind the man. Saved from being predictable simply for the batshit levels of crazy. At least Once per Episode: Events have been playing out totally differently to player expectation. Typically the Player Character has actually been a pawn in the grand scheme of events, and they've actually been dancing to the villain's secret Gambit Roulette.

Several people aren't who they seem, and thus have ulterior motives: Rat Patrol 01 is another set of unaware Patriot puppets , Drebin is still loyal to the Patriots , Cypher is Major Zero , Big Boss was never really dead and has woken up , Naomi is terminally ill and trying to fix things , The Patriots are revealed to be Major Zero's team in MGS3 plus EVA and Ocelot , the true villains are revealed as Patriot AIs gone haywire and plunging the world into a war economy , the list goes on.

If he appears, then Ocelot has a reveal regarding his affiliations as per his Chronic Backstabbing Disorder. A phonecall reveals he was really working for the US President. The epilogue reveals he was loyal to Big Boss all along and one of the original Patriots. The final cutscene reveals he was Big Boss' only confidant, and deliberately sabotaged his own memories to keep him loyal to Venom.

There's one or more ending stinger s , which puts a huge spin on the game itself or the series as a whole. The Patriots have seemingly been dead for decades. Ocelot has the real Philosophers' Legacy. Big Boss is alive and stops Snake killing himself. The real Big Boss has went into hiding with Ocelot's and Venom's inadvertent help. In Snake Eater , after Naked Snake is promoted to the rank of Big Boss, having killed his mentor, The Boss, he visits her grave, and salutes her one last time as a single tear roll down his cheek.

Fifty years later , Big Boss visits her grave one final time, and attempts to salute her before collapsing from exhaustion Subverted in only one instance so far: Four different characters are stated to have lived for over a century The End, ? Snake and Solidus and Liquid, but he doesn't live long enough to decay are an inversion, similar to the Replicants from Blade Runner. They're not engineered to last. In every game, there's not just one Voice with an Internet Connection ; there is a whole team dedicated to providing backup for the player.

You can call them at any time to have conversations that alternate between useful and amusing and Anvilicious.

Unfortunately , they can call you as well The last few hours of MGS2. Also anything involving Psycho Mantis and Screaming Mantis, who sometimes attacks the ''player''. Screaming Mantis can even fake the game resetting to the title screen. Presumably, the two games immediately after the glorious insanity of MGS2 's ending were intended to be this. Mobile Cardboard Box Mr. Happens at the start of every game with the Colonel, Otacon, Major Zero, et cetera. The Quirky Miniboss Squad from each game tends to be this.

Big Boss tends to recruit people regardless of nation or ideology, hence the diversity of his armies. The reason it was repeated in the original MGS was because Metal Gear 2 was only released in Japan, and MGS1 followed more or less the same plot in a different setting. The second time this happened was for another reason.

The series has a few recurring jokes and themes, most notably the cardboard box which appears in every main game in the series. Everything supernatural that happens?

It's caused by these buggers in one way or another with the possible exceptions of The Sorrow, Psycho Mantis, and Vulcan Raven. Lampshaded by Armstrong during his battle with the now memetic sentence: You start out with goodies in games before MGS4.

MGS4 , you get all your weapons and earned gear, plus goodies. Your support crew in each game. No Celebrities Were Harmed: In subsequent ports of Metal Gear 2 , the character designs were revamped to resemble Shinkawa's designs from the later MGS games. Which still draw a lot from actors: One of the trademarks of the series. Characters explicitly describe the game's controls with a straight face; the Copy Protection involves a character asking you to look at the back of the game package; one of your Voices With An Internet Connection provides constant real-world advice on how to play your video game properly and healthily; a Jack Bauer Interrogation Technique scene involves the resident Magnificent Bastard warning you not to try to use autofire to beat the Mini-Game ; and everything involving Psycho Mantis, who used your save game content to "read your mind," the rumble feature on your controller to move it with "telekinesis," had a special move that caused your screen to turn black, and could only be defeated by unplugging your controller and plugging it into the second port or by already having a second controller in the second port, and picking it up.

And that's only what the first game does; the second, which explicitly aims to break the fourth wall, was worse. It got to the point of Lampshade Hanging: Then he remembers that, because the game is on a dual-layer Blu-ray disc, there is no disc 2. Snake tells Otacon to stop fooling around, while players freak out due to the exact location of this conversation.

Then, when Psycho Mantis shows up again , he tries to pull the same tricks. However, he can't read your memory since the PS3 doesn't have a memory card, and he can only make the controller vibrate if the player is using the Dualshock 3.

And again in the previous boss fight, where the Colonel recommends using the same tricks against a different psychic boss, only to have them all shot down. Oh, and in Metal Gear AC! Metal Gear Solid Mobile is a good example. Also, you might wonder why a lot of characters like to talk to you through the Codec screen rather than to your face or with Codec real-time. This is because time stands still during the process, because it's a video game , and MGS2 went and injected Postmodernism through where the fourth wall was supposed to be, which is why you're so confused right now.

Almost every Metal Gear built is based on the plans of the previous Metal Gear. Then the plans to make one got on the black market and everyone had a Metal Gear. However, this was done deliberately after receiving criticism for using Just a Stupid Accent for the Russian soldiers in Metal Gear Solid 2. V averts it altogether; in Ground Zeroes you're up against US Marines , and in Phantom Pain soldiers speak in their native tongues , which becomes subtitled if you recruit a translator.

Notice This Not So Different: Despite professing complete difference from the enemies they fight, Big Boss and Solid Snake are often pointed out to be exactly like the soldiers on the other side. This also extends to each other, while Solid Snake absolutely denies that he's anything like his father the two are very similar, to the point that they even profess similar ideals about being a soldier.

Madnar, Huey and Sokolov wind up being manipulated into creating horrific superweapons. They've both been used as tools for long enough and have decided to fight back, much the same way that Big Boss, Liquid and Solidus have. Novelization Nuclear Weapons Taboo: The whole franchise stands in defiance of this trope.

See Psycho Mantis, above. If you save during the fight with The End, and wait a week or just advance your PlayStation's internal clock by a week , he dies of old age. MGS3 actually kind of inverts it. When fighting The End, Para-Medic says that she has a bad feeling about saving. If you save and reload the game, The End sneaks up behind you and tranqs you in the head.

However, if you save and wait a week before playing again, The End will have died of old age. Regardless of which game you're playing, you can set your watch by these "Snake" refers to whomever currently goes by the moniker: Snake makes a memorable and death-defying entrance. In the Big Boss games, modern technology will exist decades in the past, from e-cigs to artificial intelligence to the Walkman to the smartphone and holograms.

Snake will be imprisoned, then escape without much fuss. Snake keeps somebody waiting. Snake gets tortured at some point. Snake's CO will betray him, usually more than once. This has become a recurring Unreveal. Snake must backtrack to an earlier point in the game to retrieve an obscure item. Snake will exclaim, "What the hell?! Portable Ops does this, and so does the R2-tapping strategy.

One Dose Fits All: Both games feature a tranquilizer pistol, with which enemies can be dispatched non-lethally. Tranquilizer darts will be equally effective on any regular enemy regardless of size, provided they are not wearing full body armour, making this a straight example. In boss fights, however, it's played with. Bosses can also be defeated non-lethally, but rather than knocking them out with a single dart to the head, they instead have a "stamina" bar much like their regular health meter which depletes the more they get hit by tranquilizer darts.

However, this stamina bar is based not on the enemy's size, physical fitness or constitution, but rather simply scales up linearly as part of the game's difficulty curve. So it's averted, but in the interests of gameplay rather than realism could be considered an Acceptable Break from Reality , as the boss fights would be very anticlimactic if the bosses reacted to tranquilizer darts the same way the regular enemies do.

The series has six characters whose names are variants of John - two Johns one also called Jack , another Jack, two Johnnys and an Ivan, plus two more of the similarly-sounding Jonathan.

Five of them appear in Metal Gear Solid 4 , and each game in the series has at least one. The same series also includes two Davids, Jim and James, Natasha and Nastasha, two President Johnsons the real-life Lyndon Johnson and the fictional James Johnson , and no less than six characters who have at some point gone by the codename Snake.

This trope usually doesn't come into effect in the series, since it deals more or less with more realism compared to most games. That being said, there are a few points where it comes pretty close canonically. For instance, Volgin merging with the Shagohod's wiring during the final battle, or Peace Walker turning from bipedal into a quadruped.

Metal Gear is a stealth-based game series— Rather, it's the stealth-based game series. The games have varying difficulty levels. If one chooses the easiest difficulty, then it's a valid option to plow through the game without really needing to use its stealth elements. However, selecting anything above "Normal" makes using stealth absolutely necessary, as guards will be vigilant and difficult to take down, and using stealth is far easier than trying to macho one's way through.

The most extreme gameplay modes in the Metal Gear series actually force the player to restart from the beginning if they are so much as noticed by one guard. You receive a lower score at the end if you kill everything. Also, in MGS3 and MGS4 , you get good bonus items from the bosses if you tranquilize them into submission instead of kill them. In MGS3 , The Sorrow, a sub-boss that can't be killed, tries to kill you with guilt, sending the ghosts of your fallen but not tranquilized enemies stumbling towards you.

The other bosses show up regardless of their ultimate demise, since even if you sedate them, they still use bombs to self-destruct. As before, some of the Emblems ranks require a certain amount of kills less than or more than to acquire; the Pigeon and Big Boss Emblems for example require no kills.

In MGS1 , Liquid disguises himself as an ally on Snake's codec by putting on sunglasses and changing his accent. Note that he still has the same voice, one distinctive enough that many players became suspicious the moment he opened his mouth. On the other hand, its subverted when the re-releases of Metal Gear 2 as well as his appearance in Peace Walker show that he actually does look like a disguised Liquid, and in the case of the latter game, even sounds like Liquid in disguise.

And, of course, you can hide inside cardboard boxes, which are literally a paper-thin disguise. Soldiers aren't totally fooled by these, though, especially in later games, and especially if the box is out in the open and in their way. However, she was so much better at disguise than Snake in 2. David Hayter has joked in interviews that most of the dialogue he has to record consists of repeating the last couple words the other person said, and adding a question mark to it.

Lampshaded in Metal Gear AC! You're familiar with it? Had to blurt it out Originally, the trope name for Parrot Exposition was Metal Gearing. Justified in the fact that A the blades are meant to deflect bullets, and B the suits they wear increase reflexes. When playing with Cyborg Ninja Raiden, you don't have a block button, you just have to Ninja Run to automatically deflect bullets.

Most of the games have at least one sequence where Snake must utilize a Nikita missile launcher to solve an electrified-floor puzzle. Les Enfants Terribles; the experiments that made Gray Fox. Ironically in MGS4 , used by Old Snake to restore Psyche until his body builds up a tolerance in both gameplay and a cutscene near the end of the playable part of the game , as well as to make Vamp mortal and to free himself and Meryl from Screaming Mantis' nanomachine control.

You'll always get something the first time you complete the game, and some more rewards if you also fulfill certain objectives during it. The ninja and Solidus in MGS2 on the other hand are textbook cases. A running ew theme in the Metal Gear Solid games is toilet humour; generally, at least one case of someone wetting themselves occurs per game.

Since Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty , this trope has been in effect in some form or another. The most ridiculous example occurs in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots with Apple products permeating throughout. At the end of Metal Gear Solid 2 , Ocelot had been taken over by the transplanted arm of Liquid Snake the last we saw him.

In Metal Gear Solid 4 , their personalities had supposedly merged. Come the climax of that game, Ocelot throws off his coat, to reveal said arm is now robotic. This hints that the merged persona was an act all along.

For every game in the series, as soon as you can find a silencer for the pistol, it instantaneously becomes your best weapon. This is especially true when the series introduces first-person view, because you can line up headshots so easily. Combine this with the fact that every gun is wildly accurate, and you can easily have situations where you line up a headshot from across the loaded map to where you can barely see the enemy textures, and it will work.

Metal Gear Solid 3 not only skips the step of making you find the Silencers which make the pistol so effective though you can run out and need to restock them , but when you get it, Naked Snake goes on an extended monologue about how awesome the pistol is, and if you call Sigint later, he'll go even more in depth.

Guns of the Patriots almost seems to Lampshade this when they give you the Operator at the beginning of the game, which is already a good gun, according to the in-game stats but then you can acquire the similar except better Mk 23 the SOCOM from the original and the MA1 that Naked Snake used in the third game, each gun being better than the last.

See all the Five-Bad Band entries. Rated M for Manly: The story of a ruggedly handsome and tough-as-nails Anti-Hero stealth operative, cloned from the greatest soldier to have ever lived, a master of unarmed combat and all kinds of weapons ranging from sniper rifles to tranquilliser dart pistols and knives, with an IQ of and fluency at least six languages , who travels the world and destroys nuclear-armed Humongous Mecha and often faces down whole armies and super-soldiers with seemingly supernatural abilities in the process?

You bet this is a manly series. That said, a lot of the portrayals of manly and cool tropes are, at best, bad life choices and at worst, the symptoms of mental disorders obtained through battlefield trauma. Even the aforedescribed protagonist is not immune to it. Also, it's a stealth game, so running around blowing things up like an Action Hero is usually not a good idea.

Recruited from the Gutter: In Metal Gear Solid , Naomi reveals that her adopted brother rescued her and put her through medical school after she was orphaned. In Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake , Grey Fox reveals that he's defected to Big Boss's side because he was recruited to Foxhound by him as a child soldier the later games which starred Big Boss would elaborate on this.

Big Boss in general founded Outer Heaven as a refuge for disenfranchised soldiers and war orphans To his credit, he does sincerely care about them. A few aspects of the story have been changed occasionally, such as MGS4 ignoring that Dr. Eva goes so far to ask him if he has come to seduce her. Rather interesting, as Naked Snake manages to successfully seduce both Adam and Eva. Without even trying or noticing , even. Later she hands the same apple to Adam aka Ocelot , who crushes it and throws it away.

The series' use of it is inverted near the end of Guns of the Patriots when the Scarabs start piling on Snake: Snake screamed Otacon's name again earlier in Guns of the Patriots when he got half of his face burned very badly. This almost qualifies as a CMOA during the final duel when after Snake takes an absolutely brutal beating at the hands of Liquid Ocelot he turns the fight around by breaking his enemy's fingers.

As Snake rises he screams his rival's name with a cry of rage and frustration, to be answered in kind as the camera spins. And they they really start beating the hell out of each other. The stingers to Solids all feature one after the respective Wham Line comes up.

Main series